Barack H. Obama

Barack H. Obama books and biography

Barack Obama


Barack Obama
Barack Obama

President-elect of the United States
Taking office
January 20, 2009
Vice President Joe Biden (elect)
Succeeding George W. Bush

Junior Senator
from Illinois
Assumed office 
January 4, 2005
Serving with Dick Durbin
Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald
Succeeded by TBA

Member of the Illinois Senate
from the 13th district
In office
January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004
Preceded by Alice Palmer
Succeeded by Kwame Raoul

Born August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) (age 47)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.
Birth name Barack Hussein Obama II
Political party Democratic Party
Spouse Michelle Obama (m. 1992)
More detailed articles about Barack Obama
Early life and career · (Family · Memoir)
Illinois Senate career
U.S. Senate career
Presidential primaries · Obama–Biden 2008
Policy positions · Public image

Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk hʊˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the President-elect[1][2][3] of the United States of America and the junior United States Senator from Illinois. Obama is the first person of African American descent to be elected President of the United States,[4] and also the first African American to be nominated for President by a major political party.[5]

He is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American to serve as president of the Harvard Law Review.[6] Obama worked as a community organizer and practiced as a civil rights attorney before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, he announced his campaign for the U.S. Senate in January 2003. After a primary victory in March 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. He was elected to the Senate in November 2004 with 70 percent of the vote.

As a member of the Democratic minority in the 109th Congress, he helped create legislation to control conventional weapons and to promote greater public accountability in the use of federal funds. He also made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. During the 110th Congress, he helped create legislation regarding lobbying and electoral fraud, climate change, nuclear terrorism, and care for returned U.S. military personnel.

Obama announced his presidential campaign in February 2007, and was nominated at the 2008 Democratic National Convention with Senator Joe Biden of Delaware as his vice presidential running mate. In the 2008 presidential election he won 53% of the popular vote.[7]


if (window.showTocToggle)

Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama
A young Obama pictured with his mother, Ann Dunham, who raised him.

Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii,[8] to Barack Hussein Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya, and Ann Dunham, a white American from Wichita, Kansas[9] of mainly English, Irish and smaller amounts of German descent.[10][11][12] His parents met in 1960 while attending the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student.[13][14] The couple married February 2, 1961;[15] they separated when Obama was two years old and subsequently divorced in 1964.[14] Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[16]

After her divorce, Dunham married Lolo Soetoro, and the family moved to Soetoro's home country of Indonesia in 1967, where Obama attended local schools, such as Asisi, in Jakarta until he was ten years old. He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents while attending Punahou School from the [17] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 for several years, and then in 1977 went back to Indonesia, where she worked as an anthropological field worker. She stayed there most of the rest of her life, returning to Hawaii in 1994. She died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[18]

As an adult Obama admitted that during high school he used marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol, which he described at the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency as his greatest moral failure.[19][20]

Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, where he studied at Occidental College for two years.[21] He then transferred to Columbia College in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.[22] Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983, then at the start of the following year worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[23][24] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[25][26]

After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side, and worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988.[25][27] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000, with accomplishments including helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[28] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[29] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his [30]

Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. At the end of his first year, he was selected, based on his grades and a writing competition, as an editor of the Harvard Law Review.[31] In February 1990, in his second year, he was elected president of the Law Review, a full-time volunteer position functioning as editor-in-chief and supervising the Law Review's staff of eighty editors.[32] Obama's election as the first black president of the Law Review was widely reported and followed by several long, detailed profiles.[32] During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[33] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[34][35] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[31]

The publicity from his election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations.[36] In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.[36] He originally planned to finish the book in one year, but it took much longer as the book evolved into a personal memoir. In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[36]

Obama directed Illinois' Project Vote from April to October 1992, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and seven hundred volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African-Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[37][38]

Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s).

Beginning in 1992, Obama taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years, being first classified as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[39]

He also, in 1993, joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[25][40][41]

Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[25][42] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of The Joyce Foundation.[25] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[25] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[25]

State legislator, 1997–2004

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois' 13th District, which then spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[43] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[44] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[45] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[46]

Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, and again in 2002.[47] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[48][49]

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[50] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[45][51] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[52] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the US Senate.[53]

2004 U.S. Senate campaign

See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004

In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[54] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[55] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[56] He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.[57]

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[58]

In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[59] After describing his maternal grandfather's experiences as a World War II veteran and a beneficiary of the New Deal's FHA and G.I. Bill programs, Obama spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities. He questioned the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War and highlighted America's obligations to its soldiers. Drawing examples from U.S. history, he criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity in diversity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[60] Broadcasts of the speech by major news organizations launched Obama's status as a national political figure and boosted his campaign for U.S. Senate.[61]

In August 2004, two months after Ryan's withdrawal and less than three months before Election Day, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[62] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[63] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[64]

U.S. Senator, from 2005

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[65] Obama was the fifth African American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.[66] He is the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[67] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007, and the National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007. In 2005 he was ranked sixteenth, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[68][69] In 2008, he was ranked by as the eleventh most powerful Senator.[70]


See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate
Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[71]

Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[72] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[73] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[74] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of, a web search engine on federal spending.[75] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[76]

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[77] In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[78] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[79] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[80] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[81] neither of which have been signed into law.

Obama and Richard Lugar visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility.[82]

Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[83] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[84] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[85][86] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[87]


Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[88] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[89] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[90] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of Palestine, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[91][92][93][94]

2008 presidential campaign

Main articles: Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008
Wikinews has related news:
Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[95][96] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[97] Throughout the campaign, Obama has emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and providing [98]

Obama on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential campaign in Springfield, Illinois.

Obama's campaign raised $58 million during the first half of 2007, of which donations of less than $200, classified as "small donations" by campaign laws, accounted for $16.4 million. The $58 million set the record for fundraising by a presidential campaign in the first six months of the calendar year before the election.[99] The magnitude of the small donation portion was outstanding from both the absolute and relative perspectives.[100] In January 2008, his campaign set another fundraising record with $36.8 million, the most ever raised in one month by a presidential candidate in the Democratic primaries.[101]

Among the January 2008 [102] He again broke fundraising records in the first two months of 2008, raising over $90 million for his primary to Clinton's $45 million.[103] After Super Tuesday, Obama won the eleven remaining February primaries and caucuses.[104] Obama and Clinton split delegates and states nearly equally in the March 4 contests of Vermont, Texas, Ohio, and Rhode Island; Obama closed the month by winning Wyoming and Mississippi.[105]

In March 2008, a controversy broke out concerning Obama's former pastor of twenty years, Jeremiah Wright,[106] after ABC News broadcast clips of his racially and politically charged sermons.[106][107] Initially, Obama responded by defending Wright's wider role in Chicago's African American community,[108] but condemned his remarks and ended Wright's relationship with the campaign.[109] During the controversy, Obama delivered a speech entitled "A More Perfect Union"[110] that addressed issues of race. Obama subsequently resigned from Trinity United Church of Christ "to avoid the impression that he endorsed the entire range of opinions expressed at that church."[111][112][113]

General David Petraeus gives an aerial tour of Baghdad to Barack Obama and Chuck Hagel.

During April, May, and June, Obama won the North Carolina, Oregon, and Montana primaries and remained ahead in the count of pledged delegates, while Clinton won the Pennsylvania, Indiana, West Virginia, Kentucky, Puerto Rico, and South Dakota primaries. During the period, Obama received endorsements from more superdelegates than did Clinton.[114] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead while increasing the delegate count needed to win.[115] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the threshold to become the presumptive nominee.[116][117] On that day, he gave a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[118] From that point on, he campaigned for the general election race against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee.

On June 19, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down [119]

On August 23, 2008, Obama selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[120] At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Obama's former rival Hillary Clinton gave a speech strongly supporting Obama's candidacy and later called for Obama to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic presidential candidate.[121][122] Then, on August 28, Obama delivered a speech to the 84,000 supporters in Denver. During the speech, which was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide, he accepted his party's nomination and presented his policy goals.[123][124]

Obama delivering his victory speech at Grant Park

After McCain was nominated as the Republican presidential candidate, polls indicated that he had closed the gap with Obama. There were three presidential debates between Obama and McCain in September and October 2008.[125][126]

After the debates, Obama pulled ahead in national polls. On November 2, 2008, Obama's grandmother, Madelyn Dunham, died from cancer at the age of 86. Obama learned of his grandmother's death on November 3, one day before the election.[127][128]

On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama defeated John McCain and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[129][130] In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Chicago, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America."[131]

Political positions

Main article: Political positions of Barack Obama
Obama campaigning in Pennsylvania, October 2008.

Obama was an early opponent of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[132] On October 2, 2002, the day President George W. Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[133] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza,[134] speaking out against the war.[135][136] On March 16, 2003, the day President Bush issued his 48-hour ultimatum to Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq before the U.S. invasion of Iraq,[137] Obama addressed the largest Chicago anti-Iraq War rally to date in Daley Plaza and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[138]

Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not "weaponize" space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems," and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.[139]

In November 2006, Obama called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[140] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[141] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[142][143][144] Detailing his strategy for fighting global terrorism in August 2007, Obama said "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[145]

In a December 2005, Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[146] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[147] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[148]

In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[149] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[150] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal healthcare in the United States.[151] Obama proposes to reward teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[152]

Obama speaking at a rally in Conway, South Carolina.[153]

In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[154] His plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, repeal income tax cuts for those making over $250,000 as well as the capital gains and dividends tax cut,[155] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[156] Announcing his presidential campaign's energy plan in October 2007, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[157] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[158]

Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups.[159] In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren.[160] Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier.[161] He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it.[162] Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."[163]

A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[164] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU,[165] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90 percent from the ADA.[166]

Family and personal life

Main article: Family of Barack Obama
Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama.

Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[167]

Obama met his wife, Michelle Robinson, in June 1989 when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[168] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial offers to date.[169] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[170] The couple's first daughter, [171] followed by a second daughter, , in 2001.[172]

Applying the proceeds of a book deal,[173] in 2005 the family moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[174] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's indictment and subsequent conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[175][176]

In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[177] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[178]

Obama playing basketball with U.S. military in Djibouti in 2006.[179]

In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family. "Michelle will tell you that when we get together for Christmas or Thanksgiving, it's like a little mini-United Nations," he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[180] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[181] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[182] until her death on November 2, 2008, just before the presidential election.[183] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[184]

Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[185] Before announcing his presidential candidacy, he began a well-publicized effort to quit smoking.[186]

Obama is a Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father as "raised a Muslim", but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[187][188] He was baptized at Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988.[189][190]

Cultural and political image

Main article: Public image of Barack Obama

With his Kenyan father and white American mother, his upbringing in Honolulu and Jakarta, and his Ivy League education, Obama's early life experiences differ markedly from those of African American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[191] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough," Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that the debate is not about his physical appearance or his record on issues of concern to black voters. Obama said that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[192]

Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[193]

Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining factor for his public image.[194] Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,[195] but Obama also established close relationships with prominent foreign politicians and elected officials even before his presidential candidacy, notably with then current British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom he met in London in 2005,[196] with Italy's Democratic Party leader Walter Veltroni, who visited Obama's Senate office in 2005,[197] and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who also visited him in Washington in 2006.[198]

President elect of the United States

On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama defeated John McCain and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[199][200][201] In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Chicago, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America."[202]

see Presidential transition of Barack Obama

Written works

  • Obama, Barack (1995). Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0307383415.  Audio Book Grammy Award Winner: Spoken word[203]
  • Obama, Barack (October 17, 2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. Crown Publishing Group / Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0307237699.  Audio Book Grammy Award Winner: Spoken word[204][205]
  • Obama, Barack (March 27, 2007). Barack Obama in His Own Words. PublicAffairs. ISBN 0786720573. 
  • National Urban League (April 17, 2007). The State of Black America 2007: Portrait of the Black Male, Foreword by Barack Obama, Beckham Publications Group. ISBN 0931761859. 
  • Obama, Barack (July-August 2007). "Renewing American Leadership". Foreign Affairs 86 (4). Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  • Obama, Barack (March 1, 2008). Barack Obama: What He Believes In – From His Own Works. Arc Manor. ISBN 1604501170. 
  • Obama, Barack; McCain, John (June 13, 2008). Barack Obama vs. John McCain – Side by Side Senate Voting Record for Easy Comparison. Arc Manor. ISBN 1604502495. 
  • Obama, Barack (September 9, 2008). Change We Can Believe In: Barack Obama's Plan to Renew America's Promise, Foreword by Barack Obama, Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0307460452. 


  1. ^ FACTBOX: Barack Obama, Democratic President-elect (Reuters, November 5, 2008); World leaders hail Obama triumph (BBC News, November 5, 2008); Obama's victory caps struggles of previous generations (CNN, November 5, 2008)
  2. ^ The President-elect can be yielded on election day, but the official Electoral College vote is not until early December."Backgrounder: U.S. presidential elections", Xinhua News Agency (November 5, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-11-06. 
  3. ^ "Barack Obama wins presidential election", CNN. Retrieved on 2008-11-05. 
  4. ^ 55% of White Americans classify Obama as biracial when they are told that he has a white mother, while 66% of African Americans consider him black.("Williams/Zogby Poll: Americans' Attitudes Changing Towards Multiracial Candidates", (2006-12-22). Retrieved on 2007-09-23. ) Obama describes himself as "black" or "African American", using both terms interchangeably ("Transcript excerpt: Senator Barack Obama on Sixty Minutes", CBS News (2007-02-11). Retrieved on 2008-01-29. )
  5. ^ "First African American Nominated as Presidential Candidate of US Major Party". Voice of America (2008-08-28). Retrieved on 2008-09-18.
  6. ^ Butterfield, Fox (1990). "First Black Elected to Head Harvard's Law Review'". NY Times. Retrieved on November 6, 2008.
  7. ^ BBC News US Election Results Map, as of 6 November 2008.
  8. ^ Maraniss, David (2008-08-22). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-10-27. 
  9. ^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck (August 21, 2008). Retrieved on October 24, 2008.
  10. ^ - Report: Obama's Irish Roots Unearthed - Politics | Republican Party | Democratic Party | Political Spectrum
  11. ^ Barack Obama's Irish Heritage - John A. Farrell (
  12. ^ Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own -
  13. ^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales", East African (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 2008-04-13. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. 
  14. ^ a b Tim Jones (2007-03-27). "Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator", Chicago Tribune, reprinted in Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 2008-10-27. 
  15. ^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 2007-04-09. 
  16. ^ Merida, Kevin (2007-12-14). "The Ghost of a Father", Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.  See also: Ochieng, Philip (2004-11-01). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found", East African. Retrieved on 2008-06-24. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27.  In August 2006, Obama flew his wife and two daughters from Chicago to join him in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya. Gnecchi, Nico (2006-02-27). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya", Voice of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-24. 
  17. ^ Serafin, Peter (2004-03-21). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.  See also: Obama (1995), Chapters 3 and 4.
  18. ^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.  See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (2006-11-29). "Obama for President... of Indonesia", Jakarta Post. Retrieved on 2008-06-24. 
  19. ^ "Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum -". (2008-08-17). Retrieved on 2008-08-29.
  20. ^ "Barack Obama, asked about drug history, admits he inhaled". International Herald Tribune (2006-10-25). Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
  21. ^ "Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83". Occidental College (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  22. ^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83", Columbia College Today. Retrieved on 2008-06-09. 
  23. ^ "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on 2001-05-09. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.
  24. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (2008-08-06). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who, p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  26. ^ Scott, Janny (2007-10-30). "Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.  Obama (1995), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.
  27. ^ Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (2007-03-30). "Portrait of a pragmatist", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. Archived from the original on 2008-02-09.  Lizza, Ryan (2007-03-19). "The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education" (alternate link), New Republic. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.  Obama (1995), pp. 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.
  28. ^ Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.  Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  29. ^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.  reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University, pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335.  Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (2008-03-02). "Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer", Newsday, p. A06. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  30. ^ Obama (1995), pp. 299–437.
  31. ^ a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (2007-01-28). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Kantor, Jodi (2007-01-28). "In law school, Obama found political voice", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Kodama, Marie C (2007-01-19). "Obama left mark on HLS", The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Mundy, Liza (2007-08-12). "A series of fortunate events", The Washington Post, p. W10. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Heilemann, John (2007-10-22). "When they were young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.
  32. ^ a b Butterfield, Fox (1990-02-06). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review", The New York Times, p. A20. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Ybarra, Michael J (1990-02-07). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 3. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Drummond, Tammerlin (1990-03-12). "Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times, p. E1. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (1990-04-18). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor" (paid archive), The Miami Herald, p. C01. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. 
  33. ^ Aguilar, Louis (1990-07-11). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 2008-06-15. "Barack Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins & Sutter in Chicago" 
  34. ^ Adams, Richard (2007-05-09). "Barack Obama", The Guardian. Retrieved on 2008-10-26. 
  35. ^ Mendell, David. "Barack Obama (American politician)". Retrieved on 2008-10-26.
  36. ^ a b c Scott, Janny (2008-05-18). "The story of Obama, written by Obama", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Obama (1995), pp. xiii–xvii.
  37. ^ White, Jesse (ed.) (2000). Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed.. Springfield, IL: Illinois Secretary of State, p. 83. OCLC 43923973. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  38. ^ Jarrett, Vernon (1992-08-11). "'Project Vote' brings power to the people" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 23. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.  Reynolds, Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of Confidence". Chicago 42 (1): 53–54. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.  Anderson, Veronica (September 27–October 3, 1993). "40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote". Crain's Chicago Business 16 (39): 43. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  39. ^ University of Chicago Law School (2008-03-27). "Statement regarding Barack Obama". University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Miller, Joe (2008-03-28). "Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?". Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Holan, Angie Drobnic (2008-03-07). "Obama's 20 years of experience". Retrieved on 2008-06-10.
  40. ^ Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) (2007-02-10). "Obama got start in civil rights practice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Pallasch, Abdon M (2007-12-17). "As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking", Chicago Sun-Times, p. 4. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  "People" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune (1993-06-27), p. 9 (Business). Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  "Business appointments" (paid archive), Chicago-Sun-Times (1993-07-05), p. 40. Retrieved on 2008-06-15.  Miner, Barnhill & Galland (2008). "About Us". Miner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. Obama (1995), pp. 438–439, Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.
  41. ^ "ARDC Individual Attorney Record of Public Registration and Public Disciplinary and Disability Information as of October 17, 2008 at 12:52:13 PM". Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission of the Supreme Court of Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
  42. ^ Public Allies (2008). "Fact Sheet on Public Allies' History with Senator Barack and Michelle Obama". Public Allies. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
  43. ^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (2007-04-03). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.  White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment", Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State, p. 65. State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.
  44. ^ Slevin, Peter (2007-02-09). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol", Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.  Helman, Scott (2007-09-23). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.  See also: "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics", Associated Press, CBS News (2007-01-17). Retrieved on 2008-04-20.  "In-Depth Look at Obama's Political Career" (video), CLTV, Chicago Tribune (2007-02-09). Retrieved on 2008-04-20. 
  45. ^ a b Scott, Janny (2007-07-30). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.  See also: Pearson, Rick; Ray Long (2007-05-03). "Careful Steps, Looking Ahead", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. Archived from the original on 2008-02-16. 
  46. ^ Allison, Melissa (2000-12-15). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 2008-06-01.  Long, Ray; Allison, Melissa (2001-04-18). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures.", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-06-01. 
  47. ^ "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2000-08-24). Archived from the original on 2000-04-12. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2004-10-09). Archived from the original on 2004-08-02. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  48. ^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results - Illinois". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.. See also: "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid". and Scott, Janny (2007-09-09). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. 
  49. ^ McClelland, Edward (2007-02-12). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural", Salon. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.  See also: Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (2007-07-16). "Across the Divide", Newsweek, MSNBC. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.  Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.  and Wills, Christopher (2007-10-24). "Obama learned from failed Congress run", USA Today. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. 
  50. ^ Calmes, Jackie (2007-02-23). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama", Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. 
  51. ^ Tavella, Anne Marie (2003-04-14). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate", Daily Herald, p. 17. Retrieved on 2008-06-01.  Haynes, V. Dion (2003-06-29). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review", Chicago Tribune, p. 8. Retrieved on 2008-06-01.  Pearson, Rick (2003-07-17). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved on 2008-06-01. 
  52. ^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (2007-03-14). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals", The Hill. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.  See also: "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 2008-04-20. 
  53. ^ Coffee, Melanie (2004-11-06). "Associated Press, HPKCC. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. 
  54. ^ Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  55. ^ Davey, Monica (2004-03-07). "Closely Watched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Candidates in Millionaire Range", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  56. ^ Wallace-Wells, Ben (2007-04-01). "Obama's Narrator", The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  57. ^ Davey, Monica (2004-03-17). "From Crowded Field, Democrats Choose State Legislator to Seek Senate Seat", New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.  See also: Jackson, John S (August 2006). "The Making of a Senator: Barack Obama and the 2004 Illinois Senate Race" (PDF), Occasional Paper of the Paul Simon Public Policy Institute, Southern Illinois University. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  58. ^ "Ryan Drops Out of Senate Race in Illinois", CNN (2004-06-25). Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  59. ^ Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The Speech", Chicago Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  60. ^ Obama, Barack (2004-07-27). "Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention" (text or video). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  61. ^ Archibold, Randal C (2004-07-29). "The Illinois Candidate; Day After, Keynote Speaker Finds Admirers Everywhere", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.  Roach, Ronald (2004-10-07). "Obama Rising", Black Issues In Higher Education, Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  62. ^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (2004-08-09). "Alan Keyes Enters U.S. Senate Race in Illinois Against Rising Democratic Star", Associated Press, Union-Tribune (San Diego). Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  63. ^ Liam, Ford; David Mendell (2004-08-13). "Keyes Sets Up House in Cal City", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  64. ^ "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois", CNN. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.  Slevin, Peter (2007-11-13). "For Obama, a Handsome Payoff in Political Gambles", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  65. ^ "About Barack Obama". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  66. ^ "Breaking New Ground: African American Senators". U.S. Senate Historical Office. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
  67. ^ "Member Info". Congressional Black Caucus. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. See also: Zeleny, Jeff (2005-06-26). "When It Comes to Race, Obama Makes His Point—With Subtlety", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. Archived from the original on 2008-02-16. 
  68. ^ Nather, David (2008-01-14). "The Space Between Clinton and Obama", CQ Weekly. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.  See also: Curry, Tom (2008-02-21). "What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal", MSNBC. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  69. ^ "Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007", National Journal (2008-01-31). Retrieved on 2008-06-25. 
  70. ^ KnowLegis. "Power Rankings: Senate". Retrieved on 2008-09-07.
  71. ^ "President Bush Signs Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act.". White House (2006-09-26).
  72. ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 1st Session (2005-05-12). "S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  73. ^ "Latinos Upset Obama Voted for Border Fence", CBS 2 (Chicago) (2006-11-20). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. 
  74. ^ "Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President". Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office (2007-01-11). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: Lugar, Richard G; Barack Obama (2005-12-03). "Junkyard Dogs of War", Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  75. ^ McCormack, John (2007-12-21). "Google Government Gone Viral", Weekly Standard. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.  See also: "President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act". Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office (2006-09-26). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. and
  76. ^ S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008, 2007-2008 (110th Congress)
  77. ^ McIntire, Mike (2008-02-03). "Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  78. ^ "Democratic Republic of the Congo". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (April 2006). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. "The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo". International Rescue Committee (2007-01-05). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  79. ^ Weixel, Nathaniel (2007-11-15). "Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel", The Hill. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.  Weixel, Nathaniel (2007-12-05). "Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation", The Hill. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.  See also: "Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007", Federal Election Commission (2007-09-24). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  80. ^ Stern, Seth (2007-01-31). "Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation",, The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.  U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (2007-01-31). "S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: "Honesty in Elections" (editorial), The New York Times (2007-01-31). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  81. ^ Krystin, E. Kasak (2007-02-07). "Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home", Medill News Service, The Times (Munster, Indiana). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.  "Latest Major Action: 1/30/2007 Referred to Senate committee." U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (2007-01-30). "S. 433, Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  82. ^ "Nunn–Lugar Report" (PDF). Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office (August 2005). Retrieved on 2008-04-30.
  83. ^ "Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action". Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office (2007-10-01). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: Dine, Philip (2007-12-23). "Bond Calls for Review of Military Discharges", St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  84. ^ "Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases".
  85. ^ Graham-Silverman, Adam (2007-09-12). "Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran", CQ Today. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  86. ^ "Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2007-12-20). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  87. ^ "Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2007-08-02). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  88. ^ "Committee Assignments" (archive). Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2006-12-09). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  89. ^ "Obama Gets New Committee Assignments". Associated Press. Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office (2006-11-15). Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  90. ^ Baldwin, Tom (2007-12-21). "Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience", Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  91. ^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP", Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  92. ^ Goudie, Chuck (2006-01-12). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor", WLS-TV. Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  93. ^ "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud", (2006-08-28). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. 
  94. ^ Wamalwa, Chris (2006-09-02). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10.  Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (2006-09-04). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. Archived from the original on 2007-10-07. 
  95. ^ Pearson, Rick; Long, Ray (2007-02-10). "Obama: I'm running for president", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. 
  96. ^ "Obama Launches Presidential Bid", BBC News (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  97. ^ "Presidential Campaign Announcement" (video), Obama for America, Brightcove.TV (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  98. ^ "Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.  See also: Falcone, Michael (2007-12-21). "Obama's 'One Thing'", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. 
  99. ^ Malone, Jim (2007-07-02). "Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination", Voice of America. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  100. ^ Cummings, Jeanne (2007-09-26). "Small Donors Rewrite Fundraising Handbook", Politico. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  101. ^ Cadei, Emily (2008-02-21). "Obama Outshines Other Candidates in January Fundraising", CQ Politics. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. 
  102. ^ "2008 Democratic Delegates". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  103. ^ Dan Morain (2008-03-07). "Obama sets fundraising record with $55 million", Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. 
  104. ^ Brian Knowlton (2008-02-21). "Make That 11 for Obama", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. 
  105. ^ ". Retrieved on 2008-03-04. 
  106. ^ a b Brian Ross; Rehab el-Buri (2008-03-13). "Obama's Pastor: God Damn America, U.S. to Blame for 9/11", ABC News. Retrieved on 2008-03-17.  See also: Sullivan, Andrew (2008-03-16). "For The Record", The Daily Dish, The Atlantic. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. 
  107. ^ Jeff Goldblatt (2008-03-14). "Obama's Pastor's Sermon: 'God Damn America'", FOXNews. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. 
  108. ^ Miller, Sunlen (2008-03-27). "Obama Defends Wright on ABC's 'The View'", ABC News. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. 
  109. ^ Johnson, Alex (2008-03-14). "Controversial minister leaves Obama campaign", MSNBC. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  110. ^ Barack Obama (2008-03-18). "Remarks by Barack Obama: 'A More Perfect Union'", The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. 
  111. ^ "Obama resigns from controversial church", CNN (2008-05-31). Retrieved on 2008-05-31. 
  112. ^ "Obama quits church, citing controversies", CNN (2008-05-31). Retrieved on 2008-07-24. 
  113. ^ "Obama quits church after long controversy", MSNBC (2008-06-01). Retrieved on 2008-06-05. 
  114. ^ "Superdelegates put Obama within reach", The Associated Press, (2008-05-12). Retrieved on 2008-05-13. 
  115. ^ "Clinton Wins Puerto Rico Primary", The Associated Press, Free Internet Press (2008-06-01). Retrieved on 2008-06-01. 
  116. ^ "Obama: I will be the Democratic nominee", (2008-06-04). Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  117. ^ John Whitesides in Washington (2008-06-04). "Obama clinches nomination", Herald Sun (Australia). Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  118. ^ Zeleny, Jeff and Michael Luo (2008-06-04). "Obama Clinches Nomination", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-06-04. 
  119. ^ Salant, Jonathan D. (2008-06-19). "Obama Won't Accept Public Money in Election Campaign", Bloomberg. Retrieved on 2008-06-19. 
  120. ^ Sidoti, Liz; Fouhy, Beth (Associated Press) (2008-08-22). "Obama picks Biden for veep", San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. 
  121. ^ Tom Baldwin (2008-08-27). "Hillary Clinton: 'Barack is my candidate'", TimesOnline. Retrieved on 2008-08-27. 
  122. ^ Nagourney, Adam (2008-08-27). "Obama Wins Hard-Fought Nomination as Biden and Bill Clinton Rally the Party", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-08-27. 
  123. ^ "Obama accepts Democrat nomination", BBC News, BBC (2008-08-29). Retrieved on 2008-08-29. 
  124. ^ Marks, Alexandra (2008-08-29). "Soaring speech from Obama, plus some specifics", The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. 
  125. ^ Commission on Presidential Debates Announces Sites, Dates, Formats and Candidate Selection Criteria for 2008 General Election, Commission on Presidential Debates, 2007-11-19. Retrieved 2008-07-06.
  126. ^ "Gun Ruling Reverberates," The Hartford Courant, 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2008-07-06.
  127. ^ "Obama's grandmother dies after battle with cancer", CNN (November 3, 2008). Retrieved on November 4, 2008. 
  128. ^ "McCain pledges to help Obama lead". CNN (2008-11-04). Retrieved on 2008-11-04.
  129. ^ "BBC NEWS | World | Americas | US Elections 2008 | Obama wins historic US election". (Page last updated at 06:09 GMT, Wednesday, 5 November 2008). Retrieved on 2008-11-05.
  130. ^ White Americans play major role in electing the first black president, Los Angeles Times, November 5, 2008
  131. ^ Rural Notebook. "Change has come, says President-elect Obama - Americas, World - The Independent". Retrieved on 2008-11-05.
  132. ^ Strausberg, Chinta (2002-09-26). "Opposition to war mounts" (paid archive), Chicago Defender, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. 
  133. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2002-10-02). "President, House Leadership Agree on Iraq Resolution". The White House. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. Tackett, Michael (2002-10-03). "Bush, House OK Iraq deal; Congress marches with Bush" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. 
  134. ^ Glauber, Bill (2003-10-03). "War protesters gentler, but passion still burns" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-02-03.  Strausberg, Chinta (2002-10-03). "War with Iraq undermines U.N.", Chicago Defender, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-10-28. "Photo caption: Left Photo: Sen. Barack Obama along with Rev. Jesse Jackson spoke to nearly 3,000 anti-war protestors (below) during a rally at Federal Plaza Wednesday."  Bryant, Greg (2002-10-02). "300 protesters rally to oppose war with Iraq", . Retrieved on 2008-02-03.  Katz, Marilyn (2007-10-02). "Five Years Since Our First Action". Chicagoans Against War & Injustice. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. Bryant, Greg; Vaughn, Jane B. (2002-10-03). "300 attend rally against Iraq war" (paid archive), Daily Herald (Arlington Heights), p. 8. Retrieved on 2008-10-28.  Mendell (2007), pp. 172–177.
  135. ^ Obama, Barack (2002-10-02). "Remarks of Illinois State Sen. Barack Obama Against Going to War with Iraq", Retrieved on 2008-02-03. 
  136. ^ McCormick, John (2007-10-03). "Obama marks '02 war speech; Contender highlights his early opposition in effort to distinguish him from his rivals" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 7. Retrieved on 2008-10-28. "The top strategist for Sen. Barack Obama has just 14 seconds of video of what is one of the most pivotal moments of the presidential candidate's political career. The video, obtained from a Chicago TV station, is of Obama's 2002 speech in opposition to the impending Iraq invasion."  Pallasch, Abdon M. (2007-10-03). "Obama touts anti-war cred; Kicks off tour 5 years after speech critical of going to Iraq" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 26. Retrieved on 2008-10-28. 
  137. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (2003-03-16). "President Bush: Monday "Moment of Truth" for World on Iraq". The White House. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. Associated Press (2003-03-17). "'Moment of truth for the world'; Bush, three allies set today as final day for Iraq to disarm or face massive military attack" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. 
  138. ^ Ritter, Jim (2003-03-17). "Anti-war rally here draws thousands" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 3. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. 
  139. ^ Barack Obama. (2007-10-22). Obama-Caucus4Priorities (flv). Obama '08. Retrieved on 2008-05-18.
  140. ^ For audio and text, see: Obama, Barack (2006-11-20). "A Way Forward in Iraq". Chicago Council on Global Affairs. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  141. ^ Obama, Barack (2007-03-02). "AIPAC Policy Forum Remarks". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. Retrieved on 2008-01-30. For Obama's 2004 Senate campaign remarks on possible missile strikes against Iran, see: Mendell, David (2004-09-25). "Obama Would Consider Missile Strikes on Iran" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  142. ^ "Barack Obama and Joe Biden's Plan to Secure America and Restore Our Standing". Obama for America. Retrieved on 2008-09-22.
  143. ^ Gordon, Michael R. and Zeleny, Jeff (2007-11-02). "Obama Pledges 'Aggressive' Iran Diplomacy", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-06-17. 
  144. ^ "Transcript of fourth Democratic debate", The New York Times (2007-07-24). Retrieved on 2008-06-17. 
  145. ^ "Obama Warns Pakistan on Al-Qaeda", BBC News (2007-08-01). Retrieved on 2008-01-14.  For video and text of the speech, see: "Policy Address on Terrorism by The Honorable Barack Obama, United States Senator from Illinois", Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (2007-08-01). Retrieved on 2008-01-30.  For details of the aborted 2005 military operation, see Mazzetti, Mark (2007-07-08). "Rumsfeld Called Off 2005 Plan to Capture Top Qaeda Figures", International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  146. ^ Obama, Barack; Sam Brownback (2005-12-27). "Policy Adrift on Darfur", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.  Doyle, Jim (2006-05-01). "Tens of Thousands Rally for Darfur", San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  147. ^ Kuhnhenn, Jim (Associated Press) (2007-05-17). "Giuliani, Edwards Have Sudan Holdings", San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. ; Obama, Barack (2007-08-30). "Hit Iran Where It Hurts", New York Daily News. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  148. ^ Obama, Barack (July–August 2007). "Renewing American Leadership". Foreign Affairs 86 (4). Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  149. ^ Franklin, Ben A (2005-06-01). "The Fifth Black Senator in U.S. History Makes F.D.R. His Icon", Washington Spectator. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  150. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (2005-09-12). "Judicious Obama Turns Up Volume", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  151. ^ Pickler, Nedra (2007-01-25). "Obama Calls for Universal Health Care within Six Years", Associated Press via Union-Tribune (San Diego). Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  152. ^ Davis, Teddy; Sunlen Miller (2007-11-20). "Obama Bucks Party Line on Education", ABC News. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  153. ^ "Rally at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC" (video), Obama for America, Brightcove.TV (August 23, 2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-17. 
  154. ^ "A Speech On the Economy, Opportunity and Tax Policy with Senator Barack Obama", Tax Policy Center (2007-09-18). Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  155. ^ "Study:Bush tax cuts favor wealthy", CBS (2004-08-13). Retrieved on 2008-04-05. 
  156. ^ "Obama Tax Plan: $80 Billion in Cuts, Five-Minute Filings", CNN (2007-09-18). Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  157. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (2007-10-09). "Obama Proposes Capping Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Making Polluters Pay", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  158. ^ Barack Obama. "The Blueprint for Change: Barack Obama's plan for America" (PDF). Obama for America. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.
  159. ^ Lerner, Michael (2006-07-03). "U.S. Senator Barack Obama Critiques Democrats' Religiophobia", Tikkun Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.  "Sen. Barack Obama: Call to Renewal Keynote Address". Beliefnet (2006-06-28). Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  160. ^ Gibson, Manda (2006-06-28). "At Global AIDS Summit, Churches Challenged to Take the Lead", Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  161. ^ "Screaming Crowds Welcome U.S. Senator 'Home'", CNN (2006-08-27). Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  162. ^ Obama, Barack (2006-12-01). "Race Against Time—World AIDS Day Speech", Obama U.S. Senate Office. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  163. ^ "Barack Obama: Faith Has Been 'Hijacked'", Associated Press via CBS News (2007-06-24). Retrieved on 2008-01-14.  See also: Brody, David (2007-07-30). "Obama to CBN News: We're No Longer Just a Christian Nation", Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  164. ^ Mayer, William (2004-03-28). "Kerry's Record Rings a Bell", Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-06-07. "The question of how to measure a senator's or representative's ideology is one that political scientists regularly need to answer. For more than 30 years, the standard method for gauging ideology has been to use the annual ratings of lawmakers' votes by various interest groups, notably the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) and the American Conservative Union (ACU)." 
  165. ^ "2005 U.S. Senate Votes". American Conservative Union. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.; "2006 U.S. Senate Votes". American Conservative Union. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.; "2007 U.S. Senate Votes". American Conservative Union. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.
  166. ^ "ADA's 2005 Congressional Voting Record". Americans for Democratic Action. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.; "ADA's 2006 Congressional Voting Record". Americans for Democratic Action. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.; "ADA's 2007 Congressional Voting Record". Americans for Democratic Action. Retrieved on 2008-09-20.
  167. ^ "When Barry Became Barack", Newsweek (2008-03-31). Retrieved on 2008-11-06. 
  168. ^ Obama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also: Brown, Sarah (2005-12-07). "Obama '85 Masters Balancing Act", Daily Princetonian. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.  Tucker, Eric (2007-03-01). "Family Ties: Brown Coach, Barack Obama", Associated Press, ABC News. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  169. ^ Obama (2006), p. 329.
  170. ^ Fornek, Scott (2007-10-03). "Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet'", Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  171. ^ Martin, Jonathan (2008-07-04). "Born on the 4th of July". The Politico. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
  172. ^ Obama (1995), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339–340. See also: "Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama". Gannett News Service. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
  173. ^ "Obama: I trusted Rezko" (2008-03-15).
  174. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (2005-12-24). "The First Time Around: Sen. Obama's Freshman Year", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  175. ^ "Rezko found guilty in corruption case", The Associated Press, (2008-06-04). Retrieved on 2008-06-24. 
  176. ^ Slevin, Peter (2006-12-17). "Obama Says He Regrets Land Deal With Fundraiser", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. 
  177. ^ "Obama's Money", (2007-12-07). Retrieved on 2008-04-28.  See also: Goldfarb, Zachary A (2007-03-24). "Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  178. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (2008-04-17). "Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  179. ^ "Senator Barack Obama Visit to CJTF-HOA and Camp Lemonier: August 31—September 1, 2006" (video), Combined Joint Task Force—Horn of Africa, YouTube (2007-02-06). Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  180. ^ "Keeping Hope Alive: Barack Obama Puts Family First". The Oprah Winfrey Show (2006-10-18). Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
  181. ^ Fornek, Scott (2007-09-09). "Half Siblings: 'A Complicated Family'", Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.  See also: "Interactive Family Tree". Chicago Sun-Times (2007-09-09). Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
  182. ^ Fornek, Scott (2007-09-09). "Madelyn Payne Dunham: 'A Trailblazer'", Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 2008-06-24. 
  183. ^ "Obama's grandmother dies after battle with cancer", CNN (2008-11-03). Retrieved on 2008-11-04. 
  184. ^ Obama (1995), p. 13. For reports on Obama's maternal genealogy, including slave owners, Irish connections, and common ancestors with George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Harry Truman, see: Nitkin, David; Harry Merritt (2007-03-02). "A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History", Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.  Jordan, Mary (2007-05-13). "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.  "Obama's Family Tree Has a Few Surprises", Associated Press, CBS 2 (Chicago) (2007-09-08). Retrieved on 2008-06-24. 
  185. ^ Kantor, Jodi (2007-06-01). "One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.  See also: "The Love of the Game" (video), HBO: Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel, YouTube ( (2008-04-15). Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  186. ^ Parsons, Christi (2007-02-06). "Obama Launches an '07 Campaign—To Quit Smoking", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. Archived from the original on 2008-02-16. 
  187. ^ Obama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions excerpted in: Obama, Barack (2006-10-23). "My Spiritual Journey", Time. Retrieved on 2008-04-28. 
  188. ^ Obama, Barack (2006-06-28). "'Call to Renewal' Keynote Address". Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois (website). Retrieved on 2008-06-16.
  189. ^ Jodi Kantor (April 30, 2007). "Barack Obama's search for faith", International Herald Tribune.  April 30, 2007
  190. ^ Barack Obama (Oct 16, 2006). "My Spiritual Journey", Time magazine. 
  191. ^ Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (November 2004). "The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama?", Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.  See also: Scott, Janny (2007-12-28). "A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line", International Herald Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-04-07. 
  192. ^ Payne, Les (2007-08-19). "In One Country, a Dual Audience" (paid archive), Newsday. Retrieved on 2008-04-07. 
  193. ^ Dorning, Mike (2007-10-04). "Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.  See also: Harnden, Toby (2007-10-15). "Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide", Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2008-04-07. 
  194. ^ The Root; USA Today
  195. ^ World wants Obama as president: poll
  196. ^ "Obama to visit nuclear, biological weapons destruction facilities in former Soviet Union" -
  197. ^ Quel giorno di tre anni fa a Washington Barack mi raccontò la sua speranzaRome Mayor's Leadership Bid May Lead to Early Italian Elections; VELTRONI A NEW YORK - Il politico prevale sull' amministratore; Libreria Rizzoli Galleria
  198. ^ "Sarkozy, Obama and McCain" - The Economist
  199. ^ "BBC NEWS | World | Americas | US Elections 2008 | Obama wins historic US election". (Page last updated at 06:09 GMT, Wednesday, 5 November 2008). Retrieved on 2008-11-05.
  200. ^ "Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-11-05. 
  201. ^ CNN (2008). "Obama: 'This is your victory'". CNN. Retrieved on November 5, 2008.
  202. ^ Rural Notebook. "Change has come, says President-elect Obama - Americas, World - The Independent". Retrieved on 2008-11-05.
  203. ^ Morris, Chris (2006-09-06). "U2 goes 5-for-5 at Grammys", The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. 
  204. ^ Associated Press (2008-02-10). "Obama beats ex-presidents for audiobook Grammy", Toronto Star. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. 
  205. ^ Goodman, Dead (2008-02-10). "Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama", Reuters. Retrieved on 2008-11-05. "Obama on Sunday won the spoken word Grammy for the audiobook version of his blockbuster tome The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. It marked his second statuette, following a win in 2006 for Dreams From My Father." 


  • Obama, Barack (1998) Public policy in the 21st century. Loyola University of Chicago. Center for Instructional Design.; VHS Video
  • Obama, Barack (2004). Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. Times Books. ISBN 1-4000-8277-3. 
  • Obama, Barack (2005) EBONY'S 60th Anniversary - The Political Movement In Black America. Chicago, Johnson Pub. Co., etc., Ebony. 61, no. 1, (2005): 116
  • Obama, Barack (2005) Bound to the Word - Guardians of truth and knowledge, librarians must be thanked for their role as champions of privacy, literacy, independent thinking, and, most of all, reading. American libraries. 36, no. 7, (2005): 48, Chicago, American Library Association.
  • Obama, Barack (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0-307-23769-9. 
  • Obama, Barack (2006) It takes a nation : how strangers became family in the wake of Hurricane Katrina : the story of Civic Action's by Laura Dawn; Barack Obama; San Rafael, CA : Earth Aware, ISBN: 1932771867 9781932771862
  • Obama, Barack (2006) Lobbying reform : congressional ethics in the wake of scandal : does the Legislative Transparency and Accountability Act provide for sufficient reforms? by Trent Lott; Barack Obama; Congressional Digest Corporation.; et al, Bethesda, MD : Congressional Digest Corp., OCLC: 84912539
  • Obama, Barack (2007) Barack Obama in his own words Ed. Lisa Rogak, New York: Carroll & Graf, 2007. ISBN: 9780786720576 0786720573
  • Obama, Barack (2008, contr.) in Health care by David M Haugen; Detroit : Greenhaven Press/Gale; ISBN: 9780737740066; 073774006X; 9780737740073; 0737740078
  • Obama, Barack (2008) Affordable Health Care for All Americans: The Obama-Biden Plan 13. Affordable Health Care for All Americans: The Obama-Biden Plan JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 300, no. 16, (2008): 1927, Chicago : American Medical Association, 1960-
  • Obama, Barack (2008) An American story : the speeches of Barack Obama : a primer by Barack Obama and David Olive; Toronto: ECW Press, ISBN: 9781550228649; 1550228641
  • Obama, Barack (2008) Change we can believe in : Barack Obama's plan to renew America's promise, New York : Three Rivers Press, ISBN: 9780307460455 : 0307460452 : 9780739383223 0739383221
  • Obama, Barack (2008) Barack Obama's speech on race : "A more perfect union." BN Publishing, ISBN: 9650060448 9789650060442
  • Obama, Barack (2008) An analysis of the Obama health care proposal by John Holahan; Linda Blumberg; Barack Obama; Health Policy Center (Urban Institute, Washington), D.C. : Urban Institute Health Policy Center, OCLC: 262633852
  • Obama, Barack (2008) Renewing American leadership Foreign Affairs, New York/N.Y.(0015-7120), 86 (Juli-August 2007) 4 S. 2-16 Ill.
  • Mendell, David (2007). Obama: From Promise to Power. Amistad/HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-085820-6. 

Further reading

Barack Obama
v  d  e
Early life and career · (Family · Memoir)
Illinois Senate career
U.S. Senate career
Presidential primaries
Obama–Biden 2008
Presidential transition
Policy positions · Public image

  • Curry, Jessica. "Barack Obama: Under the Lights", Chicago Life, Fall 2004. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  • Graff, Garrett. "The Legend of Barack Obama", Washingtonian, November 1, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  • Lizza, Ryan. "Above the Fray", GQ, September 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  • Koltun, Dave (2005) "The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political “Star”" in "The Road to Congress 2004" Editors: Sunil Ahuja (Youngstown State University) and Robert Dewhirst (Northeast Missouri State University), Nova Science Publishers, Haupauge, New York, Binding: Hardcover Pub. Date: 2005, ISBN: 1-59454-360-7
  • MacFarquhar, Larissa. "The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?", New Yorker, May 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  • Mundy, Liza. "A Series of Fortunate Events", The Washington Post Magazine, August 12, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  • Wallace-Wells, Ben. "Destiny's Child", Rolling Stone, February 7, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.
  • Zutter, Hank De. "What Makes Obama Run?", Chicago Reader, December 8, 1995. Retrieved on 2008-01-14.

This article might use material from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Sponsored Links

A More Perfect Union

Barack Obama Speech , 05-10-08

Democratic National Convention

Inaugural Address Of President Barack Obama 2009

Obama Race Speech Read

On Iraq War

By Barack H. Obama

On Iraq War
Details Report
Share this Book!

Remarks Of Senator Barack

Securing Our Energy Future

Senator Barack Obama S Announcement For President

The American Promise

The Audacity Of Hope

We The People, In Order To Form A More Perfect

message of the week Message of The Week

Bookyards Youtube channel is now active. The link to our Youtube page is here.

If you have a website or blog and you want to link to Bookyards. You can use/get our embed code at the following link.

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook.

Bookyards Facebook, Tumblr, Blog, and Twitter sites are now active. For updates, free ebooks, and for commentary on current news and events on all things books, please go to the following:

Bookyards at Facebook

Bookyards at Twitter

Bookyards at Pinterest

Bookyards atTumblr

Bookyards blog

message of the daySponsored Links