Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Hemingway books and biography

Ernest Hemingway

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Born: July 21, 1899(1899-07-21)
Oak Park, Illinois
Died: July 2, 1961 (aged61)
Ketchum, Idaho
Occupation: Writer and journalist
Literary movement: The Lost Generation
Nobel Prize in Literature (1954)
Influences: Sherwood Anderson, Po Baroja, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Theodore Dreiser, Ring Lardner, Gertrude Stein
Influenced: Charles Bukowski, Raymond Carver, Richard Ford, Jack Kerouac, Elmore Leonard, J. D. Salinger, Hunter S. Thompson, Colm Tibn, Bret Easton Ellis

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. Nicknamed "Papa", he was part of the 1920s expatriate community in Paris known as "the Lost Generation", as described in his memoir A Moveable Feast. He led a turbulent social life, was married four times, and allegedly had various romantic relationships during his lifetime. For a serious writer, he achieved a rare cult-like popularity during his lifetime. Hemingway received the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for The Old Man and the Sea. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. During his later life, Hemingway suffered from increasing physical and mental problems. In July 1961, he committed suicide by shooting himself.

Hemingway's distinctive writing style is characterized by economy and understatement. It had a significant influence on the development of twentieth-century fiction writing. His protagonists are typically stoic males who must show "grace under pressure." Many of his works are now considered canonical in American literature.


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Early life

Ernest Hemingway, c. 1900
Ernest Hemingway, c. 1900

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Hemingway was the first son and the second child born to Clarence Edmonds "Doctor Ed" Hemingway, a country doctor, and Grace Hall Hemingway. Hemingway's father attended the birth of Ernest and blew a horn on his front porch to announce to the neighbors that his wife had given birth to a boy. The Hemingways lived in a six-bedroom Victorian house built by Ernest's widowed maternal grandfather, Ernest Hall, an English immigrant and Civil War veteran who lived with the family. Hemingway was his namesake.

Hemingway's neurotic mother had considerable talent and had once aspired to an opera career and earned money giving voice and music lessons. She was domineering and narrowly religious, mirroring the strict Protestant ethic of Oak Park, which Hemingway later said had "wide lawns and narrow minds".[1] His mother had wanted to have a set of twins and when this did not happen, she dressed Ernest and his sister Marcelline (eighteen months his senior) in girl clothes and also did their hair in the same style, keeping the image of "twins" in effect. Some biographers have suggested that Grace Hemingway further "feminised" her son in his youth by calling him "Ernestine", but male infants and toddlers of the Victorian middle-class were often dressed as females.[2] Many themes in Hemingway's work point to destructive interactions between male and female sexual partners (cf. "Hills Like White Elephants"), within marital unions (cf. Now I Lay Me, The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber), and among most other combinations of men and women (cf. The Sun Also Rises); in addition certain posthumously published pieces contain ambiguous treatment of gender roles. However, the connection between Hemingway's depiction of these human conditions and his own early childhood experiences has not been presumptively established.

While his mother hoped that her son would develop an interest in music, Hemingway adopted his father's outdoorsman hobbies of hunting, fishing, and camping in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan. The family owned a house called Windemere on Michigan's Walloon Lake and often spent summers vacationing there. These early experiences in close contact with nature instilled in Hemingway a lifelong passion for outdoor adventure and for living in remote or isolated areas.

Hemingway attended Oak Park and River Forest High School from September, 1913 until graduation in June 1917. He excelled both academically and athletically; he boxed, played football, and displayed particular talent in English classes. His first writing experience was writing for "Trapeze" and "Tabula" (the school's newspaper and original literary magazine, respectively) in his junior year, then serving as editor in his senior year. He sometimes wrote under the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr., a nod to his literary hero Ring Lardner.[3]

After high school, Hemingway did not want to go to college. Instead, at age eighteen, he began his writing career as a cub reporter for The Kansas City Star. Although he worked at the newspaper for only six months (October 17, 1917-April 30, 1918), throughout his lifetime he used the guidance of the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing style: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative."[4] In honor of the centennial year of Hemingway's birth (1899), The Star named Hemingway its top reporter of the last hundred years.

World War I

A young Hemingway in his World War I uniform
A young Hemingway in his World War I uniform

Hemingway left his reporting job after only a few months, and, against his father's wishes, tried to join the United States Army to see action in World War I. He supposedly failed the medical examination due to poor vision, and instead joined the Red Cross Ambulance Corps. On his route to the Italian front, he stopped in Paris, which was under constant bombardment from German artillery. Instead of staying in the relative safety of the Hotel Florida, Hemingway tried to get as close to combat as possible.

Soon after arriving on the Italian Front Hemingway witnessed the brutalities of war. On his first day on duty, an ammunition factory near Milan blew up. Hemingway had to pick up the human, primarily female, remains. This first encounter with death left him shaken.

The soldiers he met later did not lighten the horror. One of them, Eric Dorman-Smith, entertained Hemingway with a line from Part Two of Shakespeare's Henry IV: "By my troth, I care not; a man can die but once; we owe God a death...and let it go which way it will, he that dies this year is quit for the next."[5] (Hemingway, for his part, would quote this line in The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber, one of his famous short stories set in Africa.) To another soldier, Hemingway once said, "You are troppo vecchio [It. too old] for this war, pop." The 50-year old soldier replied, "I can die as well as any man."[6]

On 8 July 1918, Hemingway was wounded delivering supplies to soldiers, which ended his career as an ambulance driver. He was hit by an Austrian trench mortar shell that left fragments in his legs, and was also hit by a burst of machine-gun fire. He was later awarded the Silver Medal of Military Valor (medaglia d'argento) from the Italian government for dragging a wounded Italian soldier to safety in spite of his own injuries.

Hemingway worked in a Milan hospital run by the American Red Cross. With very little in the way of entertainment, he often drank heavily and read newspapers to pass the time. Here he met Agnes von Kurowsky of Washington, D.C., one of eighteen nurses attending groups of four patients each. She was more than six years older than he. Hemingway fell in love with her, but their relationship did not survive his return to the United States; instead of following Hemingway to America, as originally planned, she became romantically involved with an Italian officer. This left an indelible mark on his psyche, and provided inspiration for, and was fictionalized in, one of his early novels, A Farewell to Arms. Later in life, Hemingway identified even more closely with the protagonist of that novel, claiming (falsely) to have attained the rank of lieutenant in the Italian army and to have fought in three battles.

In a letter to Charles Scribner from August 27, 1949, he claimed having killed an unarmed POW, who reminded him on Geneva Conventions, with three shots into his body and a final shot into his brain.[citation needed]

First novels and other early works

Ernest Hemingway's apartment in 1921 in Chicago, 1239 North Dearborn.
Ernest Hemingway's apartment in 1921 in Chicago, 1239 North Dearborn.

After the war, Hemingway returned to Oak Park. Driven from the United States in part due to prohibition, in 1920, he moved to an apartment on 1599 Bathurst Street, now known as the Hemingway, in the Humewood-Cedarvale neighborhood in Toronto, Ontario.[7] During his stay, he found a job with the Toronto Star newspaper. He worked as a freelancer, staff writer, and foreign correspondent. Hemingway befriended fellow Star reporter Morley Callaghan. Callaghan had begun writing short stories at this time; he showed them to Hemingway, who praised them as fine work. They would later be reunited in Paris.

For a short time from 1920 to 1921, Hemingway lived on the near north side of Chicago working for a small newspaper. In 1921, Hemingway married his first wife, Hadley Richardson. After the honeymoon they moved to a cramped top floor apartment on the 1300 block of Clark Street.[8] In September, he moved to a cramped fourth floor apartment (3rd floor by Chicago building standard) at 1239 North Dearborn in a then run-down section of Chicago's near north side. The building still stands with a plaque on the front of it calling it "the Hemingway Apartment." Hadley found it dark and depressing, but in December, 1921, the Hemingways left Chicago and Oak Park, never to live there again, and moved abroad.

At the advice of Sherwood Anderson, they settled in Paris, where Hemingway covered the Greco-Turkish War for the Star. After Hemingway's return to Paris, Anderson gave him a letter of introduction to Gertrude Stein. She became his mentor and introduced him to the "Parisian Modern Movement" then ongoing in the Montparnasse Quarter; this was the beginning of the American expatriate circle that became known as the "Lost Generation", a term popularized by Hemingway in the epigraph to his novel, The Sun Also Rises, and his memoir, A Moveable Feast. His other influential mentor was Ezra Pound,[9] the founder of imagism. Hemingway later said of this eclectic group, "Ezra was right half the time, and when he was wrong, he was so wrong you were never in any doubt about it. Gertrude was always right."[10] The group often frequented Sylvia Beach's bookshop, Shakespeare & Co., at 12 Rue de l'Odon. After the 1922 publication and American banning of colleague James Joyce's Ulysses, Hemingway used Toronto-based friends to smuggle copies of the novel into the United States (Hemingway writes of meeting and talking with Joyce in Paris in A Moveable Feast). His own first book, called Three Stories and Ten Poems (1923), was published in Paris by Robert McAlmon. In the same year, during a brief return to Toronto, Hemingway's first son was born. He asked Gertrude Stein to be John's godmother. Busy supporting a family, he became bored with the Toronto Star and resigned on January 1, 1924. Most of Hemingway's work for the Star was later published in the 1985 collection Dateline: Toronto.

Hemingway's American literary debut came with the publication of the short story cycle In Our Time (1925). The vignettes that now constitute the interchapters of the American version were initially published in Europe as in our time (1924). This work was important for Hemingway, reaffirming to him that his minimalist style could be accepted by the literary community. "Big Two-Hearted River" is the collection's best-known story.

In April 1925, two weeks after the publication of The Great Gatsby, Hemingway met F. Scott Fitzgerald at the Dingo Bar. Fitzgerald and Hemingway were at first close friends, often drinking and talking together. They frequently exchanged manuscripts, and Fitzgerald tried to do much to advance Hemingway's career and the publication of his first collections of stories, although the relationship later cooled and became more competitive. Fitzgerald's wife Zelda, however, disliked Hemingway from the start. Openly describing him as "bogus" and "phoney as a rubber cheque" and asserting that his macho persona was a facade, she became "convinced" that Ernest was homosexual and accused her husband of having an affair with him.

Some sources have speculated that Hemingway's well-documented homophobia and his frequent attacks on openly gay individuals, such as Jean Cocteau, was overcompensation for latent homosexuality. In one such instance, an anecdote told by Hemingway has an enraged Cocteau charging Radiguet (known in the Parisian literary circles as "Monsieur Bb") with decadence for his tryst with a model: "Bb est vicieuse. Il aime les femmes." ("Baby is depraved. He likes women." [Note the use of the feminine adjective]). Radiguet, Hemingway implies, employed his sexuality to advance his career, being a writer "who knew how to make his career not only with his pen but with his pencil", a salacious, phallic allusion.[11][12] The proposed argument is that the rage against Cocteau and Radiguet (whose relationship has been heavily contested in other sources) shows an inherent hostility against homosexuals which also becomes a central theme of much of his short fiction, including "The Sea Change".[13][14][15][16][17][18][19]

La Closerie des Lilas restaurant (seen here in 1909), where Hemingway wrote The Sun Also Rises.
La Closerie des Lilas restaurant (seen here in 1909), where Hemingway wrote The Sun Also Rises.

These relationships and long nights of excessive drinking provided inspiration for Hemingway's first successful novel, The Sun Also Rises (1926), which took him only six weeks to finish at his favorite restaurant in Montparnasse, La Closerie des Lilas. The novel was semi-autobiographical, following a group of expatriate Americans as they ambled around Europe. The novel was a success and met with critical acclaim. While Hemingway had initially claimed that the novel was an obsolete form of literature, he was apparently inspired to write it after reading Fitzgerald's manuscript for The Great Gatsby.

Hemingway divorced Hadley Richardson in 1927 and married Pauline Pfeiffer, a devout Roman Catholic from Piggott, Arkansas. Pfeiffer was an occasional fashion reporter, publishing in magazines such as Vanity Fair and Vogue.[20] Hemingway converted to Catholicism himself at this time. That year saw the publication of Men Without Women, a collection of short stories, containing "The Killers", one of Hemingway's best-known and most-anthologized stories. In 1928, Hemingway and Pfeiffer moved to Key West, Florida, to begin their new life together. However, their new life was soon interrupted by yet another tragic event in Hemingway's life.

In 1928, Hemingway's father, Clarence, troubled with diabetes and financial instabilities, committed suicide using an old Civil War pistol. This greatly hurt Hemingway and is perhaps played out through Robert Jordan's fathers' suicide in the novel For Whom the Bell Tolls. He immediately traveled to Oak Park to arrange the funeral and stirred up controversy by vocalizing what he thought to be the Catholic view, that suicides go to Hell. At about the same time, Harry Crosby, founder of the Black Sun Press and a friend of Hemingway's from his days in Paris, also committed suicide. In that same year, Hemingway's second son, Patrick, was born in Kansas City (his third son, Gregory, would be born to the couple a few years later). It was a Caesarean birth after difficult labor, details of which were incorporated into the concluding scene of A Farewell to Arms.

Published in 1929, A Farewell to Arms details the romance between Frederic Henry, an American soldier, and Catherine Barkley, a British nurse. The novel is heavily autobiographical: the plot is directly inspired by his relationship with Agnes von Kurowsky in Milan; the intense labor pains of his second wife, Pauline, in the birth of Hemingway's son Patrick inspired Catherine's labor in the novel; the real-life Kitty Cannell inspired the fictional Helen Ferguson; the priest was based on Don Giuseppe Bianchi, the priest of the 69th and 70th regiments of the Brigata Ancona. While the inspiration of the character Rinaldi is obscure, curiously, he had already appeared in In Our Time. A Farewell to Arms was published at a time when many other World War I books were prominent, including Frederic Manning's Her Privates We, Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, Richard Aldington's Death of a Hero, and Robert Graves' Goodbye to All That. The success of A Farewell to Arms made Hemingway financially independent.

Early critical interplay

Hemingway's early works sold well and were generally received favorably by critics. This success elicited some crude and pretentious behavior from him, even in these formative years of his career. For example, he began to tell F. Scott Fitzgerald how to write; he also claimed that the novelist Ford Madox Ford was sexually impotent. Hemingway in turn was the subject of much criticism. The journal Bookman attacked him as a dirty writer. According to Fitzgerald, McAlmon, the publisher of his first non-commercial book, labeled Hemingway "a fag and a wife-beater"[21] and claimed that Pauline, his second wife, was a lesbian (she was alleged to have had lesbian affairs after their divorce). Gertrude Stein criticized him in her book The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, suggesting that he had derived his prose style from her own and from Sherwood Anderson's.[22]

Max Eastman disparaged Hemingway harshly, asking him to "come out from behind that false hair on the chest" (this led to a physical confrontation between the two in the offices of Scribners that Maxwell Perkins witnessed and later described in a letter to F. Scott Fitzgerald). Eastman would go on to write an essay entitled Bull in the Afternoon, a satire of Hemingway's Death in the Afternoon. Another facet of Eastman's criticism consisted of the suggestion that Hemingway give up his lonely, tight-lipped stoicism and write about contemporary social affairs. Hemingway did so for at least a short time; his article Who Murdered the Vets? for New Masses, a leftist magazine, and To Have and Have Not displayed a certain heightened social awareness.

Of criticism, Hemingway said, "You can write anytime people will leave you alone and not interrupt you. Or rather you can if you will be ruthless enough about it. But the best writing is certainly when you are in love", in an interview in The Paris Review, with its founder, George Plimpton, in 1958.

Key West and the Spanish Civil War

Ernest Hemingway House in Key West, now a museum, and also home for a colony of alleged descendents of Hemingway's famous polydactyl cat
Ernest Hemingway House in Key West, now a museum, and also home for a colony of alleged descendents of Hemingway's famous polydactyl cat

Following the advice of John Dos Passos, Hemingway moved in 1931 to Key West, Florida, where he established his first American home, which has since been converted to a museum. From this 1851 solid limestone house—a wedding present from Pauline's uncle—Hemingway fished in the waters around the Dry Tortugas with his longtime friend Waldo Peirce, went to the famous bar Sloppy Joe's, and occasionally traveled to Spain, gathering material for Death in the Afternoon and Winner Take Nothing. Over the next 9 years, until the end of this marriage in 1940, and then in a second period throughout the 1950s, Hemingway would do an estimated 70% of his lifetime's writing in the writer's den in the upper floor of the converted garage, in back of this house.

Death in the Afternoon, a book about bullfighting, was published in 1932. Hemingway had become an aficionado after seeing the Pamplona fiesta of 1925, fictionalized in The Sun Also Rises. In Death in the Afternoon, Hemingway extensively discussed the metaphysics of bullfighting: the ritualized, almost religious practice. In his writings on Spain, he was influenced by the Spanish master Po Baroja (when Hemingway won the Nobel Prize, he traveled to see Baroja, then on his death bed, specifically to tell him he thought Baroja deserved the prize more than he).

A safari in the fall of 1933 led him to Mombasa, Nairobi, and Machakos in Kenya, moving on to Tanzania, where he hunted in the Serengeti, around Lake Manyara and west and southeast of the present-day Tarangire National Park. 1935 saw the publication of Green Hills of Africa, an account of his safari. The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber were the fictionalized results of his African experiences.

In 1937, Hemingway traveled to Spain in order to report on the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance. While there, Hemingway broke his friendship with John Dos Passos because, despite warnings, Dos Passos continued to report on the atrocities of not only the fascist Nationalists whom Hemingway disliked, but those of the elected and radicalized left-leaning Republicans whom he favored.[23][24] In this context Hemingway's colleague and associate Herbert Matthews, who would become more well known for his favorable reports on Fidel Castro, showed a similar bias for the Republican side as Hemingway. Hemingway, who was a convert to Catholicism during his marriage to his wife Pauline, began to question his religion at this time, eventually leaving the church (though friends indicate that he had "funny ties" to Catholicism for the rest of his life). The war also strained Hemingway's marriage. Pauline Pfieffer was a devout Catholic and, as such, sided with the fascist, pro-Catholic regime of Franco, whereas Hemingway supported the Republican government. During this time, Hemingway wrote a little known essay, The Denunciation, which would not be published until 1969 within a collection of stories, the Fifth Column and Four Stories of the Spanish Civil War. The story seems autobiographical, suggesting that Hemingway might have been an informant for the Republic as well as a weapons instructor during the war.[25]

Some health problems characterized this period of Hemingway's life: an anthrax infection, a cut eyeball, a gash in his forehead, grippe, toothache, hemorrhoids, kidney trouble from fishing, torn groin muscle, finger gashed to the bone in an accident with a punching ball, lacerations (to arms, legs, and face) from a ride on a runaway horse through a deep Wyoming forest, and a broken arm from a car accident.

The Forty-Nine Stories

In 1938—along with his only full-length play, titled The Fifth Column—49 stories were published in the collection The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories. Hemingway's intention was, as he openly stated in his foreword, to write more. Many of the stories that make up this collection can be found in other abridged collections, including In Our Time, Men Without Women, Winner Take Nothing, and The Snows of Kilimanjaro.

Some of the collection's important stories include Old Man at the Bridge, On The Quai at Smyrna, Hills Like White Elephants, One Reader Writes, The Killers and (perhaps most famously) A Clean, Well-Lighted Place. While these stories are rather short, the book also includes much longer stories, among them The Snows of Kilimanjaro and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.

For Whom the Bell Tolls

Main article: For Whom the Bell Tolls

Francisco Franco and the Nationalists defeated the Republicans, ending the Spanish Civil War in the spring of 1939. Hemingway lost an adopted homeland to Franco's fascists, and would later lose his beloved Key West, Florida home due to his 1940 divorce. A few weeks after the divorce, Hemingway married his companion of four years in Spain, Martha Gellhorn, his third wife. His novel For Whom the Bell Tolls was published in 1940. It was written in 1939 in Cuba and Key West, and was finished in July, 1940. The long work, which takes place during the Spanish Civil War, was based on real events and tells of an American named Robert Jordan fighting with Spanish soldiers on the Republican side. It was largely based upon Hemingway's experience of living in Spain and reporting on the war. It is one of his most notable literary accomplishments. The title is taken from the penultimate paragraph of John Donne's Meditation XVII.

World War II and its aftermath

The United States entered World War II on December 8, 1941, and for the first time in his life, Hemingway sought to take part in naval warfare. Aboard the Pilar, now a Q-Ship, Hemingway's crew was charged with sinking German submarines threatening shipping off the coasts of Cuba and the United States (Martha Gellhorn always viewed the sub-hunting as an excuse for Hemingway and his friends to get gas and booze for fishing). As the FBI took over Caribbean counter-espionage—J. Edgar Hoover was suspicious of Hemingway from the start, and would become more so later—Ernest went to Europe as a war correspondent for Collier's magazine. There Hemingway, observed the D-Day landings from an LCVP (landing craft), although he was not allowed to go ashore. He later became angry that his wife, Martha Gellhorn—by then, more a rival war correspondent than a wife—had managed to get ashore in the early hours of June 7 dressed as a nurse, after she had crossed the Atlantic to England in a ship loaded with explosives. Still later, at Villedieu-les-Poles, he allegedly threw three grenades into a cellar where SS officers were hiding.[citation needed] Hemingway acted as an unofficial liaison officer at Chteau de Rambouillet, and afterwards formed his own partisan group which, in his telling, took part in the liberation of Paris. This claim has been challenged by many historians, who say the only thing Hemingway liberated was the Ritz Hotel Bar. Nevertheless, he was unquestionably on the scene. [citation needed]

After the war, Hemingway started work on The Garden of Eden, which was never finished and would be published posthumously in a much-abridged form in 1986. At one stage, he planned a major trilogy which was to comprise "The Sea When Young", "The Sea When Absent" and "The Sea in Being" (the latter eventually published in 1952 as The Old Man and the Sea). He spent time in a small Italian town called Acciaroli (located approximately 136 km south of Naples), where he was often seen walking around, bottle in hand. There was also a "Sea-Chase" story; three of these pieces were edited and stuck together as the posthumously-published novel Islands in the Stream (1970).

Newly divorced from Gellhorn after four contentious years, Hemingway married war correspondent Mary Welsh Hemingway, whom he had met overseas in 1944. He returned to Cuba, and in 1945 at the Soviet Embassy became public witness to the Rolando Masferrer schism within the Cuban communist party (Garca Montes, and Alonso vila, 1970 p. 362).

Hemingway's first novel after For Whom the Bell Tolls was Across the River and Into the Trees (1950), set in post-World War II Venice. He derived the title from the last words of American Civil War Confederate General Stonewall Jackson. Enamored of a young Italian girl (Adriana Ivancich) at the time, Hemingway wrote Across the River and Into the Trees as a romance between a war-weary Colonel Cantwell (based on his friend, then Colonel Charles Lanham) and the young Renata (clearly based on Adriana; "Renata" means "reborn" in Italian). The novel received largely bad reviews, many of which accused Hemingway of tastelessness, stylistic ineptitude, and sentimentality; however this criticism was not shared by all critics.

Later years

One section of the sea trilogy was published as The Old Man and the Sea in 1952. That novella's enormous success satisfied and fulfilled Hemingway. It earned him the Pulitzer Prize in 1953. Next year he was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Literature. Upon receiving the latter, he noted with uncharacteristic humbleness that he would have been "happy; happier...if the prize had been given to that beautiful writer Isak Dinesen", referring to Danish writer Karen Blixen.[26] These awards helped to restore his international reputation.

Photograph of Ernest Hemingway aboard his yacht, the Pilar, ca. mid 1950s
Photograph of Ernest Hemingway aboard his yacht, the Pilar, ca. mid 1950s
Bartender at the famous La Bodeguita del Medio in Havana, Cuba.  Hanging on the bar is a plate with a likeness of Ernest Hemingway and a framed, signed message written by him.  He was a regular patron.
Bartender at the famous La Bodeguita del Medio in Havana, Cuba. Hanging on the bar is a plate with a likeness of Ernest Hemingway and a framed, signed message written by him. He was a regular patron.

Then, his legendary bad luck struck once again; on a safari, he was seriously injured in two successive plane crashes; he sprained his right shoulder, arm, and left leg, had a grave concussion, temporarily lost vision in his left eye and the hearing in his left ear, suffered paralysis of the sphincter, a crushed vertebra, ruptured liver, spleen and kidney, and first degree burns on his face, arms, and leg. Some American newspapers mistakenly published his obituary, thinking he had been killed. [27]

As if this were not enough, he was badly injured one month later in a bushfire accident, which left him with second degree burns on his legs, front torso, lips, left hand and right forearm. The pain left him in prolonged anguish, and he was unable to travel to Stockholm to accept his Nobel Prize.

A glimmer of hope came with the discovery of some of his old manuscripts from 1928 in the Ritz cellars, which were transformed into A Moveable Feast. Although some of his energy seemed to be restored, severe drinking problems kept him down. His blood pressure and cholesterol were perilously high, he suffered from aortal inflammation, and his depression, aggravated by the drinking, was worsening.

Following the revolution in Cuba and the ousting of General Fulgencio Batista in 1959, expropriations of foreign owned property led many Americans to return to the United States. Hemingway chose to stay a little longer. It is commonly said that he shared good relations with Fidel Castro and declared his support for the revolution, and he is quoted as wishing Castro "all luck" with running the country.[28] [29]. However, the Hemingway account "The Shot" [30] is used by Cabrera Infante [31] and others [32] [33] as evidence of conflict between Hemingway and Fidel Castro dating back to 1948 and the killing of "Manolo" Castro a friend of Hemingway. Additional information in this regard is found in [34]. Hemingway came under surveillance by the FBI both during WWII and afterwards (most probably because of his long association with marxist Spanish Civil War veterans[35] who were again active in Cuba)] for his residence and activities in Cuba.[29] In 1960, he left the island and Finca Viga, his estate outside Havana, Cuba, that he owned for over twenty years. The official Cuban government account is that it was left to the Cuban government, which has made it into a museum devoted to the author.[36] In 2001, Cuba's state-owned tourism conglomerate, El Gran-Caribe SA, began licensing the La Bodeguita del Medio international restaurant chain relying largely on the original Havana restaurant's association with Hemingway, a frequent visitor.[37].

On 26 February 1960, Ernest Hemingway was unable to get his bullfighting narrative The Dangerous Summer to the publishers. He therefore had his wife Mary summon his friend, Life Magazine bureau head Will Lang Jr., to leave Paris and come to Spain. Hemingway persuaded Lang to let him print the manuscript, along with a picture layout, before it came out in hardcover. Although not a word of it was on paper, the proposal was agreed upon. The first part of the story appeared in Life Magazine on September 5, 1960, with the remaining installments being printed in successive issues.

Hemingway was upset by the photographs in his The Dangerous Summer article. He was receiving treatment in Ketchum, Idaho for high blood pressure and liver problems—and also electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression and continued paranoia, although this may in fact have helped to precipitate his suicide, since he reportedly suffered significant memory loss as a result of the shock treatments. He also lost weight, his 6-foot (183 cm) frame appearing gaunt at 170 pounds (77 kg, 12st 2lb).


Hemingway attempted suicide in the spring of 1961, and received ECT treatment again. Some three weeks short of his 62nd birthday, he took his own life on the morning of July 2, 1961 at his home in Ketchum, Idaho, with a shotgun blast to the head. Judged not mentally responsible for his final act, he was buried in a Roman Catholic service. Hemingway himself blamed the ECT treatments for "putting him out of business" by destroying his memory; some medical and scholarly opinion has been receptive to this view, although others, including one of the physicians who prescribed the electroshock regimen, dispute that opinion.[citation needed]

Hemingway is believed to have purchased the weapon he used to commit suicide at Abercrombie & Fitch, which was then a firearm supplier.[38] In a particularly gruesome suicide, he rested the gun butt of the double-barreled shotgun on the floor of a hallway in his home, leaned over it to put the twin muzzles to his forehead just above the eyes, and pulled both triggers. [39] Despite the circumstances, the coroner, at request of the family, did not do an autopsy. [40]

Other members of Hemingway's immediate family also committed suicide, including his father, Clarence Hemingway, his siblings Ursula and Leicester, and possibly his granddaughter Margaux Hemingway. Some believe that certain members of Hemingway's paternal line had a genetic condition or hereditary disease known as haemochromatosis, in which an excess of iron concentration in the blood causes damage to the pancreas and also causes depression or instability in the cerebrum.[citation needed] Hemingway's physician father is known to have developed bronze diabetes owing to this condition in the years prior to his suicide at age fifty-nine. Some think Hemingway suffered from bipolar disorder. Throughout his life, Hemingway had been a heavy drinker, succumbing to alcoholism in his later years.

Hemingway is interred in the town cemetery in Ketchum, Idaho, at the north end of town. A memorial was erected in 1966. Celebrating Hemingway's love for Idaho and the frontier, The Ernest Hemingway Festival [3] takes place annually in Ketchum and Sun Valley in late September with scholars, a reading by the PEN/Hemingway Award winner and many more events, including historical tours, open mic nights and a sponsored dinner at Hemingway's home in Warm Springs now maintained by the Nature Conservancy in Ketchum.

Wives and descendants

  • Elizabeth Hadley Richardson. Married September 3, 1921, divorced April 4, 1927.
Son, John Hadley Nicanor "Jack" Hemingway (aka Bumby) was born on October 10, 1923.
Granddaughter, Joan (Muffet) Hemingway
Granddaughter, Margaux Hemingway
Granddaughter, Mariel Hemingway
  • Pauline Pfeiffer. Married May 10, 1927, divorced November 4, 1940.
Son, Patrick, was born on June 28, 1928.
Son, Gregory Hemingway (called 'Gig' by Hemingway; later called himself 'Gloria'), was born on November 12, 1931.
Grandchildren, Patrick, Edward, Sean, Brendan, Vanessa, Maria, John and Lorian Hemingway
  • Martha Gellhorn. Married November 21, 1940, divorced December 21, 1945.
  • Mary Welsh. Married March 14, 1946.
On 19 August, 1946, she miscarried due to ectopic pregnancy.

Posthumous publications

Hemingway was a prolific letter writer and, in 1981, many of these were published by Scribner in Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters. It was met with some controversy as Hemingway himself stated he never wished to publish his letters. Further letters were published in a book of his correspondence with his editor Max Perkins, The Only Thing that Counts [1996].

A long-term project is now underway to publish the thousands of letters Hemingway wrote during his lifetime. The project is being undertaken as a joint venture by Penn State University and the Ernest Hemingway Foundation. Sandra Spanier, Professor of English and wife of Penn State president Graham Spanier, is serving as general editor of the collection.[4]

Hemingway was still writing up to his death. All of the unfinished works which were Hemingway's sole creation have been published posthumously; they are A Moveable Feast, Islands in the Stream, The Nick Adams Stories (portions of which were previously unpublished), The Dangerous Summer, and The Garden of Eden.[41] In a note forwarding "Islands in the Stream", Mary Hemingway indicated that she worked with Charles Scribner, Jr. on "preparing this book for publication from Ernest's original manuscript". She also stated that "beyond the routine chores of correcting spelling and punctuation, we made some cuts in the manuscript, I feeling that Ernest would surely have made them himself. The book is all Ernest's. We have added nothing to it." Some controversy has surrounded the publication of these works, insofar as it has been suggested that it is not necessarily within the jurisdiction of Hemingway's relatives or publishers to determine whether these works should be made available to the public. For example, scholars often disapprovingly note that the version of The Garden of Eden published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1986, though in no way a revision of Hemingway's original words, nonetheless omits two-thirds of the original manuscript.[42]

The Nick Adams Stories appeared posthumously in 1972. What is now considered the definitive compilation of all of Hemingway's short stories was published as The Complete Short Stories Of Ernest Hemingway, first compiled and published in 1987. As well, in 1969 The Fifth Column and Four Stories Of The Spanish Civil War was published. It contains Hemingway's only full length play, The Fifth Column, which was previously published along with the First Forty-Nine Stories in 1938, along with four unpublished works written about Hemingway's experiences during the Spanish Civil War.

In 1999, another novel entitled True at First Light appeared under the name of Ernest Hemingway, though it was heavily edited by his son Patrick Hemingway. Six years later, Under Kilimanjaro, a re-edited and considerably longer version of True at First Light appeared. In either edition, the novel is a fictional account of Hemingway's final African safari in 1953–1954. He spent several months in Kenya with his fourth wife, Mary, before his near-fatal plane crashes.[43] Anticipation of the novel, whose manuscript was completed in 1956, adumbrates perhaps an unprecedentedly large critical battle over whether it is proper to publish the work (many sources mention that a new, light side of Hemingway will be seen as opposed to his canonical, macho image[44]), even as editors Robert W. Lewis of University of North Dakota and Robert E. Fleming of University of New Mexico have pushed it through to publication; the novel was published on September 15 2005.

Also published posthumously were several collections of his work as a journalist. These contain his columns and articles for Esquire Magazine, The North American Newspaper Alliance, and the Toronto Star; they include Byline: Ernest Hemingway edited by William White, and Hemingway: The Wild Years edited by Gene Z. Hanrahan. Finally, a collection of introductions, forwards, public letters and other miscellanea was published as Hemingway and the Mechanism of Fame in 2005.

Influence and legacy

The influence of Hemingway's writings on American literature was considerable and continues today. Indeed, the influence of Hemingway's style was so widespread that it may be glimpsed in most contemporary fiction,[citation needed] as writers draw inspiration either from Hemingway himself or indirectly through writers who more consciously emulated Hemingway's style. In his own time, Hemingway affected writers within his modernist literary circle. James Joyce called "A Clean, Well Lighted Place" "one of the best stories ever written". Pulp fiction and "hard boiled" crime fiction (which flourished from the 1920s to the 1950s) often owed a strong debt to Hemingway. Hemingway's terse prose style--"Nick stood up. He was all right"-- is known to have inspired Bret Easton Ellis, Chuck Palahniuk, Douglas Coupland and many Generation X writers. Hemingway's style also influenced Jack Kerouac and other Beat Generation writers. J.D. Salinger is said to have wanted to be a great American short story writer in the same vein as Hemingway. Hunter S. Thompson often compared himself to Hemingway, and terse Hemingway-esque sentences can be found in his early novel, The Rum Diary. Thompson's later suicide by gunshot to the head mirrored Hemingway's. Hemingway also provided a role model to fellow author and hunter Robert Ruark, who is frequently referred to as "the poor man's Ernest Hemingway". In Latin American literature, Hemingway's impact can be seen in the work of fellow Nobel Prize winner Gabriel Garca Mrquez. Beyond the more formal literature authors, popular novelist Elmore Leonard, who authored scores of Western and Crime genre novels, cites Hemingway as his preeminent influence and this is evident in his tightly written prose. Though he never claimed to write serious literature, he did say, "I learned by imitating Hemingway....until I realized that I didn't share his attitude about life. I didn't take myself or anything as seriously as he did."

Awards and honors

During his lifetime Hemingway was awarded with:

  • Silver Medal of Military Valor (medaglia d'argento) in World War I
  • Bronze Star (War Correspondent-Military Irregular in World War II) in 1947
  • Pulitzer Prize in 1953 (for The Old Man and the Sea)
  • Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954 (for his lifetime literary achievements)

In popular culture

  • In 1999, Michael Palin retraced the footsteps of Hemingway, in Michael Palin's Hemingway Adventure, a BBC television documentary, one hundred years after the birth of his favorite writer. The journey took him through many sites including Chicago, Paris, Italy, Africa, Key West, Cuba, and Idaho. Together with photographer Basil Pao, Palin also created a book version of the trip, with many beautiful pictures and much more detail than in the TV version. The text of the book is available for free on Palin's website.
  • Palin also wrote a novel, Hemingway's Chair, about a young English postal worker and Hemingway aficionado who attempts to take charge like his hero when the postal office where he works is falling into corporate hands.
  • In the 1995 film Seven, Morgan Freeman ended the movie by quoting a line from For Whom The Bell Tolls, saying: Ernest Hemingway once wrote, "The world is a fine place and worth fighting for.", before adding "I agree with the second part".
  • Since 1987, actor-writer Ed Metzger has portrayed the life of Ernest Hemingway in his one-man stage show, Hemingway: On The Edge, featuring stories and anecdotes from Hemingway's own life and adventures. Metzger quotes Hemingway, "My father told me never kill anything you're not going to eat. At the age of 9, I shot a porcupine. It was the toughest lesson I ever had." More information about the show is available at his website
  • Hemingway's World War II experiences in Cuba have been novelized by Dan Simmons as a spy thriller, The Crook Factory.
  • Science fiction novelist Joe Haldeman won the Hugo Award and the Nebula Award for his novella, The Hemingway Hoax, a story which explored the effect that Hemingway's lost stories might have had upon twentieth century history.
  • In Harry Turtledove's Alternate History Timeline-191, Hemingway shows up as a character who drove ambulances on the US-Canadian Front in Quebec during the Great War. The character had part of his reproductive organs shot off in the war, giving him severe depression and suicidal tendencies.
  • In Dave Sim's graphic novel Cerebus, the story arc "Form and Void" features Ham and Mary Ernestway, parodies of Hemingway and his wife Mary. The last few years of Hemingway's life, including his electroshock therapy, the safari in which he was badly injured, and his suicide are used as plot points for the story.
  • The 1988 film The Moderns locates itself in Hemingway's Paris with a central character named Nick Hart, who befriends Hemingway.
  • In the MMORPG World of Warcraft, there is a questgiver in Stranglethorn Vale called Hemet Nesingwary. His name is an anagram of Hemingway's, and even their face is similar. Also, Nesingwary wrote a book called "Green Hills of Stranglethorn", a spoof on "Green Hills of Africa".
  • In Celebrity Deathmatch, Hemingway fights against Mankind (Mick Foley).
  • A film based on Hemingway's relationship with World War II correspondent Martha Gellhorn is set to start production in 2007 under director Philip Kaufman and starring Emmy-winner James Gandolfini.
  • Hemingway was twice featured in Warner Bros. Animation television shows of the 1990s. His first appearance there was in a segment in the fourth season of Animaniacs titled "Papers for Papa". In this episode, Hemingway, trapped in writer's block, swears off of writing just as Yakko, Wakko and Dot show up with a shipment of office supplies. When Hemingway refuses to sign for the delivery, the Warners chase him around the world, during which they catch a swordfish, get in a bullfight, and climb Mount Everest. The other of these appearances was in the Histeria! episode "Super Writers", which placed Hemingway, voiced by Adam West, as the leader of a group of writers profiled in superhero-like personalities.
  • In the Family Guy movie, we find Brian in heaven drinking with Ernest Hemingway, Vincent Van Gogh, and Kurt Cobain.
  • Mexican rock band Degenerica has a song called "The Inner Battle of Ernest Hemingway".
  • Hemingway's term "Grace Under Pressure" is coined in the Canadian Progressive-Rock Band Rush's album of the same name.
  • In the film Fight Club, Edward Norton's character asks Brad Pitt's character who he would fight if he could fight anyone, alive or dead, past or present. His response is Hemingway.
  • In his novel Immortality (1991), Milan Kundera has Hemingway meeting Goethe in the afterlife where they discuss the immortality of writers and of their works.
  • In The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou the bearded marine adventurer is primarily a parody of Jacques-Yves Cousteau but also has references to Hemingway. After a scene revealing Zissou's impotence, Zissou suggests his nickname should be "Papa Zissou".
  • In the film 10 Things I Hate About You, Julia Stiles' character criticizes Hemingway by saying he was "an abusive white-male alcoholic who hung around with Picasso, hoping to nail his leftovers."
  • Hemingway is mentioned, along with many others, in the Billy Joel song "We Didn't Start the Fire."
  • In Stephen King's novel Dreamcatcher a main character is suicidal, and, during one scene in the book, he thinks about the many ways to kill yourself. As he does this, he describes one way being a "Hemingway solution", obviously referencing Hemingway's suicide.
  • Hemingway, played by Jay Underwood, was a recurring character in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles. In one episode, set in Northern Italy in 1916, Hemingway the ambulance driver gives young Indy (Sean Patrick Flanery) advice about women -- only to discover that he and Indy are rivals for the heart of the same woman. (The episode shows Indy unwittingly influencing Hemingway's future writing, by reciting the medieval poem, A Farewell To Arms by George Peele.) In another episode, set in Chicago in 1920, Hemingway the newspaper reporter helps Indy and a young Eliot Ness in their investigation of the murder of gangster James Colosimo.
  • In Jacques Poulin's novel My Sister's Blue Eyes (Yeux bleus de Mistassini), bookstore owner Jack Waterman is inspired to buy a woodstove after reading Hemingway's A Moveable Feast. He has employee and protege Jimmy read and translate Hemingway. When Jimmy travels to France, he looks for the apartment where Hemingway lived with wife Hadley. He also visits the original site of Sylvia Beach's Shakespeare and Company, as well as the store's new location.
  • In the Streetlight Manifesto song "Here's to Life", Hemingway is referenced by the verse: "Hemingway never seemed to mind the banality of a normal life and I find, it gets harder every time. So he aimed the shotgun into the blue, placed his face in between the two and sighed, "Here's To Life!".
  • In The Click Five's music video for 'Just the Girl', the teacher at the beginning is writing on the blackboard and asking the class, "Ernest Hemingway: What was his first novel and why should you care?"


  • In a boxing match with friend and writer Morley Callaghan, Hemingway's lip was cut. Hemingway spit blood into Callahan's face and said: "The bullfighters do that when they are injured, it is how they show contempt."
  • In a letter to Ezra Pound, Hemingway describes why bulls are better than literary critics: "Bulls don't run reviews. Bulls of 25 don't marry old women of 55 and expect to be invited to dinner. Bulls do not get you cited as co-respondent in Society divorce trials. Bulls don't borrow money. Bulls are edible after they have been killed."[5]
  • While Hemingway was married to Pauline Pfeiffer, with whom he had two children, he lived and wrote most of A Farewell to Arms plus several short stories at her parents' house in Piggott, Arkansas. The Pfeiffer House and Carriage House has since been converted into a museum owned by Arkansas State University.
  • According to various biographical sources, Hemingway was six feet tall and weighed anywhere between 170 and 260 pounds at varying times in his life. His build was muscular, though he became paunchy in his middle years. He had dark brown hair, brown eyes, and habitually wore a mustache (with an occasional beard) from the age of 23 on. By age 50, he consistently wore a graying beard. He had a scar on his forehead, the result of a drunken accident in Paris in his late 20s (thinking he was flushing a toilet, he accidentally pulled a skylight down on his head). He suffered from myopia all his life, but vanity prevented him from being fitted with glasses until he was 32 (and very rarely was he photographed wearing them). He was fond of tennis and boxing, fonder of fishing and hunting, and hated New York City.
  • Hemingway's memorial is inscribed with a eulogy he wrote for a friend, Gene Van Guilder:

Best of all he loved the fall
The leaves yellow on the cottonwoods
Leaves floating on the trout streams
And above the hills
The high blue windless skies
Now he will be a part of them forever

Ernest Hemingway - Idaho - 1939

  • Hemingway went to Po Baroja's burial and carried the coffin. Baroja influenced Hemingway's work.
  • Though Hemingway did not have a favorable opinion of his hometown of Oak Park, IL, describing it as a town of "Wide yards and narrow minds," the town has adopted a favorable opinion about him. Today a Hemingway Museum exists in that town. Every summer a Hemingway festival is staged in that city, complete with a "running of the bulls", using a fake bull on wheels. This festival also features readings of the author's work and Spanish food.
  • The original short short story. In the 1920s, Hemingway bet his colleagues $10 that he could write a complete story in just six words. They paid up. His story: "For sale. Baby shoes. Never worn." [45] In a contest in Wired magazine inspired by Hemingway's story, 33 authors recently submitted 6-word efforts [6].
  • The Great Michigan Read The Michigan Humanities Council selected Hemingway's The Nick Adams Stories as a one-book, one-state program, July 2007-June 2008. More than 100 communities across Michigan will become engaged in reading and discussion programs and other public programs relating to the book and its inspiration from Hemingway's summers as a young lad in Northern Michigan.



  • (1926) The Torrents of Spring
  • (1926) The Sun Also Rises
  • (1929) A Farewell to Arms
  • (1937) To Have and Have Not
  • (1940) For Whom the Bell Tolls
  • (1950) Across the River and Into the Trees
  • (1952) The Old Man and the Sea
  • (1970) Islands in the Stream
  • (1986) The Garden of Eden
  • (1999) True at First Light
  • (2005) Under Kilimanjaro


  • (1923) Three Stories and Ten Poems
  • (1925) In Our Time
  • (1927) Men Without Women
  • (1933) Winner Take Nothing
  • (1936) The Snows of Kilimanjaro
  • (1938) The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories
  • (1969) The Fifth Column and Four Stories of the Spanish Civil War
  • (1972) The Nick Adams Stories
  • (1987) The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway
  • (1995) Everyman's Library: The Collected Stories

Television Productions[46]

  • (1958) Scouting on Two Continents, by Frederick Russell Burnham (not completed)
  • (1959) For Whom the Bell Tolls
  • (1959) The Killers
  • (1960) The Fifth Column
  • (1960) The Snows of Kilimanjaro
  • (1960) The Gambeler, The Nun, and the Radio
  • (1960) After the Storm (not completed)


  • (1932) Death in the Afternoon
  • (1935) Green Hills of Africa
  • (1962) Hemingway, The Wild Years
  • (1964) A Moveable Feast
  • (1967) By-Line: Ernest Hemingway
  • (1970) Ernest Hemingway: Cub Reporter
  • (1981) Ernest Hemingway Selected Letters
  • (1985) The Dangerous Summer
  • (1985) Dateline: Toronto

US/UK Film Adaptations

  • (1932) A Farewell to Arms (starring Gary Cooper)
  • (1943) For Whom the Bell Tolls (Gary Cooper/Ingrid Bergman)
  • (1944) To Have and Have Not (Humphrey Bogart/Lauren Bacall)
  • (1946) The Killers (starring Burt Lancaster)
  • (1950) The Breaking Point
  • (1952) The Snows of Kilimanjaro (starring Gregory Peck)
  • (1957) A Farewell to Arms (starring Rock Hudson)
  • (1957) The Sun Also Rises (starring Tyrone Power)
  • (1958) The Old Man and the Sea (starring Spencer Tracy)
  • (1962) Hemingway's Adventures of a Young Man
  • (1964) The Killers (starring Lee Marvin)
  • (1965) For Whom the Bell Tolls
  • (1977) Islands in the Stream (starring George C. Scott)
  • (1984) The Sun Also Rises
  • (1990) The Old Man and the Sea (starring Anthony Quinn)
  • (1996) In Love and War (starring Chris O'Donnell)
  • (1999) The Old Man and the Sea

Stage Plays[46]

  • (1961) A Short Happy Life
  • (1967) The Hemingway Hero (working title was: Of Love and Death)


American Mercury with Al Hirschfeld's caricature of Ernest Hemingway
American Mercury with Al Hirschfeld's caricature of Ernest Hemingway
  1. ^ From Childhood at The Hemingway Resource Center.
  2. ^ Two different sources disagree on how long this habit of his mother's lasted. A note from a PBS lecture series states that it lasted for two years; Grauer claims she stopped when he was 6.
  3. ^ "Lardner Connections". Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  4. ^ Many such anecdotes are compiled at the centennial commemoration page of the Kansas City Star.
  5. ^ Burgess, 1978, p. 24.
  6. ^ Ibid.
  7. ^ National Post article on Toronto's Humewood-Cedarvale neighborhood
  8. ^ Brown, Alan, "Literary Landmarks of Chicago," 2004, Starhill Press, ISBN 0-913515-50-7.
  9. ^ On August 10, 1943, Hemingway typed a letter to Archibald MacLeish discussing Pound's mental health and other literary matters.
  10. ^ In a conversation with John Peale Bishop, quoted in Hemingway, Cowley, ed, 1944, p. xiii.
  11. ^ Thurston, Michael: "Genre, Gender, and Truth in Death in the Afternoon", The Hemingway Review, Spring 1998
  12. ^ Ernest Hemingway, Death in the Afternoon, p.71
  13. ^ Moddelmog, Debra A. "Reconstructing Hemingway's Identity: Sexual Politics, the Author, and the Multicultural Classroom." Narrative. 1.3.
  14. ^ Bederman, Gail. "Civilization, The Decline of Middle-Class Manliness, and Ida B. Wells's Anti-Lynching Campaign)." Gender and American History Since 1890. New York: Routledge, 1993
  15. ^ Bennett, Warren. "Sexual Identity in `The Sea Change.'" Hemingway's Neglected Short Fiction: New Perspectives. Ed. Susan F. Beegel. Ann Arbor: UMI Research P, 1989.
  16. ^ Brian, Denis. The True Gen: An Intimate Portrait of Hemingway by Those Who Knew Him. New York: Grove Press, 1988.
  17. ^ Chauncey, George Jr. "Christian Brotherhood or Sexual Perversion?: Homosexual Identities and the Construction of Sexual Boundaries in the World War I Era." Gender and American History Since 1890. New York: Routledge, 1993
  18. ^ Fone, Byrne R. S. A Road to Stonewall: Male Homosexuality and Homophobia in English and American Literature,. New York: Twayne, 1995 The Ernest Hemingway Foundation of Oak Park. "Literature Awards". 2/99
  19. ^ Donnell, Sean M. Hemingway's Short Fiction and the Crisis of Middle-Class Masculinity. 2002.).
  20. ^ Hemingway Resource Center
  21. ^ Burgess, 1978, p. 57.
  22. ^ Ibid.
  23. ^ The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles by Stephen Koch, published 2005 ISBN
  24. ^ The Spanish Civil War (1961) by Hugh Thomas
  25. ^ The Spanish Civil War (1961) by Hugh Thomas
  26. ^ From The New York Times Book Review, November 7, 1954.
  27. ^ Ernest Hemingway Quick Facts. encarta.
  28. ^ Hemingway's Marriage to Mary Welsh. His last days..
  29. ^ a b Homing To The Stream:Ernest Hemingway In Cuba.
  30. ^ Hemingway, Ernest 1951 The Shot. True the men’s magazine. April 1951. pp. 25-28
  31. ^ An Interview with Guillermo Cabrera Infante.
  32. ^ Gonzalez Echevarria, Roberto 1980 The Dictatorship of Rhetoric/the Rhetoric of Dictatorship: Carpentier, Garcia Marquez, and Roa Bastos. Latin American Research Review, Vol. 15, No. 3 (1980), pp. 205-228 “For example, the assassination of Manolo Castro is retold by alluding to Hemingway's "The Shot,…"”
  33. ^
  34. ^ Raimundo, Daniel Efrain 1994 Habla el Coronel Orlando Piedra (Coleccion Cuba y sus Jueces), Ediciones Universal ISBN-10 ISBN-13: Pages 93-94 refer to the death of Manolo Castro, and offers the insight that it was Rolando Masferrer’s men who, rather than the police who, were chasing after Fidel Castro with lethal intent. According to this account Castro is captured in the company of a woman and child as he tries to flee to Venezuela via the Cuban airport of Rancho Boyeros south of Havana by the Cuban Bureau of Investigation as witnessed by sergeant of that organization Joaquin Tasas. Castro is released the next day. This matter is a little odd since Fidel Castro was believed to have organized the death of Manolo Castro (p. 99). This version is a close fit the scenario described in "The Shot/."
  35. ^ The Breaking Point: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and the Murder of Jose Robles by Stephen Koch, published 2005 ISBN
  36. ^
  37. ^ MILLMAN, JOEL (February 22, 2007). Hemingway's Ties to Bar - Still Move the Mojitos. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  38. ^ Grauer, Neil A. "Remembering Papa." Cigar Aficionado, July/August 1999.
  39. ^ [1]
  40. ^ [2]
  41. ^ Information about these posthumous Hemingway works was taken from Charles Scribner, Jr.'s 1987 Preface to The Garden of Eden.
  42. ^ BookRags makes this quantitative note; it also reveals some more information about the publication of The Garden of Eden and offers some discussion of thematic content.
  43. ^ The Kent State University Press is the official source for this new novel's release.
  44. ^ See the University of North Dakota feature of editor Robert W. Lewis, for example.
  45. ^ Arthur C. Clarke, "Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds, Collected Essays", 1999, p. 354.
  46. ^ a b Hemingway, Ernest; A. E. Hotchner (2005). Dear Papa, Dear Hotch: The Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway And A. E. Hotchner. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0826216056.


  • Berridge, H.R. (1990). Barron's Book Notes on Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms. Stuttgart: Klett. ISBN.
  • Baker, Carlos (1972). Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN.
  • Baker, Carlos, ed (1962). Ernest Hemingway: Critiques of Four Major Novels. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN.
  • Bruccoli, Matthew J (1978). Scott and Ernest: The Authority of Failure and the Authority of Success. London: Bodley Head.
  • Biography. The Hemingway Resource Center (1996).
  • Garca Montes, Jorge and Antonio Alonso vila (1970). Historia del Partido Comunista en Cuba.. Miami: Ediciones Universal. p. 362
  • Hemingway, Ernest, Malcolm Cowley, ed (1944). Hemingway (The Viking Portable Library). New York: The Viking Press. OCLC 505504.
  • Lynn, Kenneth Schuyler (1995). Hemingway. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN.
  • Lynn, Steve. Texts and Contexts: Writing About Literature with Critical Theory (4th Edition). ISBN. pp. 5-7
  • Young, Philip (1952). Ernest Hemingway. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. ISBN.

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