Dorothy Canfield Fisher (February 17, 1879 – November 9, 1958) was an educational reformer, social activist, and best-selling American author in the early decades of the Twentieth century. She was named by Eleanor Roosevelt as one of the ten most influential women in the United States. Dorothy Canfield brought the Montessori method of child rearing to the United States, presided over the country's first adult education program, and shaped literary tastes by serving as a member of the Book-of-the-Month Club selection committee from 1925 to 1951. Another concern of Dorothy Canfield was her war work. She went to France during the World War I, and worked with blinded soldiers. She also established a convalescent home for refugee French children from the invaded areas.
In 1899 Dorothy Canfield received a B.A. from Ohio State University. Canfield went on to study Romance languages at Columbia University, and in 1904 was one of the few women of her generation to receive a doctoral degree. She was the first woman to receive an honorary degree from Dartmouth College, and also received honorary degrees from the University of Nebraska, Middlebury, Swarthmore, Smith, Williams, Ohio State University, and the University of Vermont. She spoke five languages fluently, and in addition to writing novels, short stories, memoirs, and educational works, she also forayed into literary criticism and translation.
Born in Lawrence, Kansas on February 17, 1879, her given name at birth was Dorothea Frances Canfield. Her father was James Hulme Canfield, a college professor at the University of Kansas and the University of Nebraska, and president of Ohio State University; her mother, Flavia Camp, was an artist and writer. However, Canfield is most closely associated with Vermont, where she spent her adult life, and which served as the setting for many of her books. In 1907 she married John Redwood Fisher, and together they had two children, a son and a daughter. William Lyon Phelps comments,"All her novels, are autobiographical, being written exclusively out of her own experience and observation."
Her best-known work today is probably Understood Betsy, a children's book about a little orphaned girl who is sent to live with her cousins in Vermont. Though the book can be read purely for pleasure, it also describes a schoolhouse which is run much in the style of the Montessori method, for which Canfield was one of the first and most vocal advocates.
The Dorothy Canfield Fisher Children's Book Award, named after her, is a unique award for new American children's books, as the winner is chosen by the vote of child readers.