James Maurice Stockford Careless (born February 17, 1919) is a Canadian historian from the University of Toronto.
Born in Toronto, Ontario, he attended the University of Toronto Schools and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1940 from the University of Toronto. He attended Harvard University and received a Master's degree in 1941 and a Ph.D. in 1950.
In 1945, he joined the History Department of the University of Toronto as a lecturer. In 1959, he was made a Professor and was Chairman of the Department from 1959 to 1967. He was made a Professor Emeritus in 1984.
From 1963 to 1973, he was a Trustee for the Ontario Science Centre. From 1975 to 1981, he was a Director of the Ontario Heritage Foundation.
In 1981, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada for his "ability to interpret Canadian history to the general reading public".  In 1987, he was awarded the Order of Ontario. In 1962, he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and was awarded the J.B. Tyrrell Historical Medal.
- Canada: A Story of Challenge (1953), winner of the 1953 Governor General's Awards
- The Union of the Canadas (1967)
- Brown of the Globe Volume 1 (1959) and Volume 2 (1963), winner of the 1963 Governor General's Awards
- Rise of Cities in Canada (1978)
- The Pre-Confederation Premiers: Ontario Government Leaders, 1841-1867 (1980)
- Toronto to 1918: An Illustrated History (1984), winner of the City of Toronto Book Award
- Frontier and Metropolis (1989)
- Ontario, A Celebration of Heritage (2 volumes 1991, 1992)
- Canada, A Celebration of Heritage (2 volumes 1994, 1995)
- Canadian Who's Who 1997 entry. Retrieved on May 8, 2006.
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