Henry Mayers Hyndman (March 7, 1842 - November 20, 1921) was an English writer and politician, and the founder of the Social Democratic Federation and the National Socialist Party.
The son of a wealthy businessman, Hyndman was born in London. After being educated at home, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge. After achieving his degree in 1861 he studied law for two years before deciding to become a journalist.
In 1866 Hyndman reported on the Italian war with Austria for the Pall Mall Gazette. Hyndman was horrified by the reality of war and became violently ill after visiting the front line. Hyndman met the leaders of the Italian nationalist movement and was generally sympathetic to their cause.
In 1869 Hyndman toured the world, visiting the United States, Australia and several European countries. He continued to write for the Pall Mall Gazette, where he praised the merits of British imperialism and criticised those advocating Home Rule for Ireland. Hyndman was also very hostile to the experiments in democracy that were taking place in the United States.
Hyndman decided on a career in politics but, unable to find a party that he could fully support, decided to stand as an Independent for the constituency of St Marylebone in the 1880 General Election. Denounced as a Tory by William Gladstone, Hyndman got very little support from the electorate and, facing certain defeat, withdrew from the contest.
Soon after the election Hyndman read a novel based on the life of Ferdinand Lassalle. He became fascinated with Lassalle and decided to research this romantic hero who had been killed in a duel in 1864. Discovering that Lassalle had been a socialist, sometimes a friend and sometimes an adversary of Karl Marx, Hyndman read The Communist Manifesto and, although he had doubts about some of Marx's ideas, was greatly impressed by his analysis of capitalism.
Hyndman then decided to form Britain's first socialist political party. The Social Democratic Federation (SDF) had its first meeting on June 7, 1881. Many socialists were concerned that in the past Hyndman had been opposed to socialist ideas, but Hyndman persuaded many that he had genuinely changed his views, and those who eventually joined the SDF included William Morris, George Lansbury and Karl Marx's daughter, Eleanor Marx. However, Friedrich Engels, Marx's long-term collaborator, refused to support Hyndman's venture.
To publicize the SDF, Hyndman wrote England for All (1881), an attempt to explain Marx's ideas. This was followed in 1883 by Socialism Made Plain, which expounded the policies of the SDF. These included a demand for universal suffrage and the nationalisation of the means of production and distribution. The SDF also published Justice, edited by the talented journalist Henry Hyde Champion.
Although Hyndman was a talented writer and public speaker, many members of the SDF questioned his leadership qualities. He was extremely authoritarian and tried to restrict internal debate about party policy. At a SDF meeting on December 27, 1884, the executive voted by a majority of two (10-8), that it had no confidence in Hyndman. When he refused to resign, some members, including William Morris and Eleanor Marx, left the party.
In the 1885 General Election, Hyndman and Henry Hyde Champion, without consulting their colleagues, accepted £340 from the Tories to run parliamentary candidates in Hampstead and Kensington, the objective being to split the Liberal vote and therefore enabling the Conservative candidate to win. This ploy failed, and the two SDF's candidates only won 59 votes between them. The story leaked out, and the political reputation of both men suffered from the idea that they were willing to accept "Tory Gold".
Hyndman continued to lead the SDF and took part in negotiations to establish the Labour Representation Committee in 1900. However the SDF left the LRC when it became clear that it was deviating from the objectives he had set out, and in 1911 he set up the British Socialist Party (BSP) when the SDF fused with a number of branches of the Independent Labour Party.
Hyndman upset members of the BSP by supporting the United Kingdom's involvement in World War I. The party split in two with Hyndman forming a new National Socialist Party
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