Arthur Cecil Pigou (November 18, 1877 – March 7, 1959) was an English economist, known for his work in many fields and particularly in welfare economics. He went to Harrow School and was a graduate of King's College, Cambridge, where he studied under Alfred Marshall. He later succeeded Marshall as professor of political economy. He served on a number of royal commissions including the 1919 commission on income tax.
Pigou pioneered welfare economics. Pigovian taxes, taxes used to correct negative externalities, are named in his honor.
Pigou was a Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge University from 1908 to 1943. In 1920, he published the influential book The Economics of Welfare.