Alexander Francis Chamberlain (1865 – 1914) was a Canadian anthropologist, born in England. He was the recipient of the first Ph.D. granted in anthropology in the United States and an alumnus of Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. Under the auspices of the British Association he made a special investigation of the Kootenay (British Columbia) Indians.
He was editor of the Journal of American Folk-Lore in 1901-08. He published Report on the Kootenay Indians, (1892); Languages of the Mississaga Indians, (1892); The Mythology of the Columbian Discovery, (1893); Child and Childhood in Folk-Thought, (1896); The Child: A Study in the Evolution of Man, (1900); Poems, (1904).
He contributed to the second edition of the New International Encyclopedia on South American Indians and Asiatic peoples.