E. Pauline Johnson, Brantford, Ontario, ca.1885-1895
Emily Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake) (10 March 1861 - 7 March 1913), commonly known as E. Pauline Johnson or just Pauline Johnson, was a Canadian writer and performer. She was born in Chiefswood, the family home built by her father on the Six Nations Indian Reserve outside of Brantford, Ontario and died in Vancouver, British Columbia. Pauline Johnson was the youngest of four children born to George Henry Martin Johnson (1816-1884), a Mohawk, and Emily Susanna Howells Johnson (1824-1898), an English woman.
Pauline Johnson is often remembered for her poems that celebrate her Aboriginal heritage. One such poem is the frequently anthologized “The Song my Paddle Sings.”
In 1758, Pauline Johnson’s great-grandfather Dan Hansen was baptized by Jacob Tekahionwake Johnson on the encouragement of Sir William Johnson, superintendent of Indian Affairs for the northern district of the American colonies (Johnston 20). Jacob Tekahionwake Johnson eventually moved north from his home in the Mohawk River Valley (now New York State) to the newly designated Six Nations territory. One of his sons, John Smoke Johnson, had a talent for oratory, spoke English, and demonstrated his patriotism to the crown during the War of 1812. As a result of these abilities and actions, John Smoke Johnson was made a Pine Tree Chief upon the request of the British government (Johnston 21). Although John Smoke Johnson’s title could not be inherited, his wife Helen Martin descended from a founding family of the Six Nations; thus, it was through her lineage and insistence that George Johnson became a Chief.
George Johnson inherited his father’s gift for languages and began his career as a church translator on the Six Nations reserve. This position introduced him to Emily Howells, the sister-in-law of the Anglican missionary he assisted. News of the couple’s interracial marriage in 1853 displeased the Johnson and Howells families. However, the birth of George and Emily’s first child reconciled the Johnson families. In his later roles as a government interpreter and hereditary Chief, George Johnson developed a reputation as a talented mediator between Native and European interests (Gray 57). George Johnson also made enemies through his efforts to stop illegal trading of reserve timber for whiskey and suffered a series of violent physical attacks at the hands of Native and non-Native men involved in this traffic. George Johnson’s health was substantially weakened by these attacks, which contributed to his death from a fever in 1884 (Gray 81).
Emily Howells was born to a well-established British family who left England for North America in 1832 — the same year as literary sisters Susanna Moodie and Catherine Parr Traill crossed the Atlantic (Gray 8-9). Henry Howells, Emily Howells’ father, was raised as a Quaker and was interested in joining the American movement to abolish slavery. He moved his family to a number of American cities, establishing schools to gain an income, before settling in Eaglewood, New Jersey (Gray 11). Emily Howells’ mother, Mary Best, died when Emily was five. Her father remarried twice and fathered a total of 24 children, who, contrary to what his educational endeavors and abolitionist agenda suggest, he treated cruelly (Gray 12).
Henry Howells, like a growing number of people living in the northern United States, displayed Christian outrage at the practice of slavery, which he in turn cultivated in his children by admonishing them to “pray for the blacks and to pity the poor Indians, although his compassion did not preclude the view that his own race was superior to others” (Gray 12). When Emily Howells moved to Six Nations at age 21 to help care for her sister's growing family and fell in love with George Johnson, she gained a more realistic understanding of Native peoples and her father’s beliefs. Emily Howells was the first cousin of American author William Dean Howells, who disparaged Pauline Johnson’s poetic abilities (Gray 122-123). Emily Howells’ dramatic life and relationships are explored in a series of articles written by Pauline Johnson for The Mother’s Magazine, which were later reprinted in The Moccasin Maker (1913).
Early life and education
Contrary to Emily and George Johnson’s initial concerns that their mixed-race family would not be accepted, they were acknowledged as a leading Canadian family (Gray 61). The Johnsons enjoyed a high standard of living, their family and home were well known, and Chiefswood was visited by important guests such as Alexander Graham Bell, Homer Watson, and Lady and Lord Dufferin.
Emily and George Johnson encouraged their four children, who were born on Native land and were thus wards of the British government, to respect, and gain knowledge of, both the Mohawk and the English aspects of their heritage. John Smoke Johnson was an important presence in the lives of his grandchildren. He spent much time telling them stories in the Mohawk tongue that they learned to comprehend but not to speak (Gray 47). Pauline Johnson believed that she inherited her talent for elocution from her grandfather and, near her time of death, she expressed regret that she had not discovered more of her grandfather’s knowledge (Johnston 21). Although Emily Johnson fostered cultural pride, she also instilled inhibitions in her children and insisted that they behave perfectly to prevent rejection (Gray 48-49).
As the youngest of her siblings and being a sickly child, Pauline Johnson was not forced to attend Brantford’s Mohawk Institute, one of Canada’s first residential schools, like her oldest brother. Instead, her education was for the most part informal, deriving from her mother, a series of non-Native governesses, a couple years at the small school on the reserve, and self-directed reading in Chiefswood’s library where she became familiar with literary works by Byron, Tennyson, Keats, Browning, and Milton (Jackel 398). She especially enjoyed reading tales about the nobility of Native peoples such as Longfellow’s epic poem The Song of Hiawatha and John Richardson’s Wacousta (Gray 53). At age 14, Johnson was sent to attend Brantford Central Collegiate with her brother Allen and she graduated in 1877. Even according to the standards of her time, Johnson’s formal education was limited and throughout her life she worried that her lack of education would prevent her from achieving her high literary aspirations (Gray 124).
Shortly after George Johnson’s death in 1884, the family rented out Chiefswood and Pauline Johnson moved with her mother and sister to a modest home in Brantford, Ontario.
Literary and stage career
During the 1880s Pauline Johnson wrote, performed in amateur theatre productions, and enjoyed the Canadian outdoors, particularly by canoe. Johnson’s first full-length poem, “My Little Jean,” a sentimental piece written for her friend Jean Morton, first appeared in the New York publication Gems of Poetry in 1883 and the production, printing, and performance of Johnson’s poetry increased steadily afterwards. In 1885, she traveled to Buffalo, New York to attend a ceremony in honor of Iroquois leader Sagoyewatha, also known as Red Jacket, and wrote a poem which relays her admiration for the renowned orator and voices pleas to reconcile feuds between British and Native peoples (Gray 90). At a Brantford ceremony held in October of 1886 in honor of Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, Johnson presented her poem “Ode to Brant,” which expresses the importance of brotherhood between Native and European immigrants while ultimately endorsing British authority (Gray 90). This performance generated a long article in the Toronto Globe and increased interest in Johnson’s poetry and ancestry.
Throughout the 1880s Johnson established herself as a Canadian writer and cultivated an audience amongst those who read her poetry in periodicals such as Globe, The Week, and Saturday Night. Johnson contributed to the critical mass of Canadian authors who were constructing a distinct national literature (Monture, Gerson). The inclusion of two of her poems in W.D. Lighthall’s Songs from the Great Dominion (1889) signaled her membership amongst Canada’s important authors (Strong-Boag and Gerson 101). In her early literary works, Johnson drew lightly from her Mohawk heritage, and instead lyricized Canadian life, landscapes, and love in a post-Romantic mode reflective of the literary interests she shared with her mother (Strong-Boag and Gerson 101).
In 1892, Johnson recited her poem “A Cry from an Indian Wife,” a work based on the battle of Cut Knife Creek during the Riel Rebellion, at a Canadian Authors Evening arranged by the Young Men’s Liberal Club. The success of this performance initiated Johnson’s fifteen-year stage career and encouraged perceptions of her as a girl (although she was thirty-one at the time of this performance), a beauty, and an exotic Aboriginal elocutionist (Strong-Boag and Gerson 102). After her first recital season, Johnson decided to emphasize the Native aspects of her literature and performance by assembling and donning a feminine Native costume (Strong-Boag and Gerson 109-110). Johnson’s decision to develop this stage persona, and the popularity it inspired, indicates that the audiences she encountered in Canada, England, and the United States — like the large crowds who attended shows such as Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show and ethnological Aboriginal exhibits in the 1890s — were educated to recognize representations of Native peoples on stage and were entertained by such productions (Strong-Boag and Gerson 111).
Siwash Rock in Stanley Park, one of the Legends of Vancouver
conveyed to Johnson by Chief Capilano, and close to where her ashes are buried.
Johnson’s complete textual output is difficult to establish as much of her large body of work was published in periodicals. Her first volume of poetry, The White Wampum, was published in London in 1895, and followed by Canadian Born in 1903. The contents of these volumes, along with some additional poems, were published as Flint and Feather in 1912. This volume has been reprinted many times, becoming one of the best-selling titles of Canadian poetry. Since the 1917 edition, Flint and Feather has been misleadingly subtitled "The Complete Poems of E. Pauline Johnson."
After retiring from the stage in August of 1909, Johnson moved to Vancouver, British Columbia and continued her writing. She created a series of articles for the Daily Province based on stories related by her friend Chief Joe Capilano of the Squamish people of North Vancouver. In 1911, to support the ill and poor Johnson, a group of friends organized the publication of these stories under the title Legends of Vancouver. They remain classics of that city's literature. The Shagganappi (1913) and The Moccasin Maker (1913), posthumous publications, are collections of selected periodical stories Johnson penned on a number of sentimental, didactic, and biographical topics. Veronica Strong-Boag and Carole Gerson provide a provisional chronological list of Johnson’s numerous and diverse writings in their text Paddling Her Own Canoe: The Times and Texts of E. Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake) (2000).
Johnson died of breast cancer in Vancouver, British Columbia on March 7, 1913. Her funeral (the largest in Vancouver up to that time), was held on what would have been her fifty-second birthday and her ashes are buried near Siwash Rock in Vancouver’s Stanley Park. In Legends of Vancouver, Johnson relates a Squamish legend of how a man was transformed into Siwash Rock "as an indestructible monument to Clean Fatherhood." In another story, she relates the history of Deadman's Island, a small islet off Stanley Park, that explains its name. In a small poem in the same book, Johnson coins the name Lost Lagoon to describe one of her favourite areas in the park because it seemed to disappear when the water drained out at low tide. Although Lost Lagoon has since been transformed into a permanent, fresh water lake, Johnson's name for it remains.
Criticism and legacy
Despite the acclaim she received from contemporaries, Pauline Johnson’s reputation significantly declined in the decades between 1913 and 1961 (Gerson 91). In 1961, on the centenary of her birth, Johnson was celebrated with the issuing of a commemorative stamp bearing her image, “rendering her the first woman (other than the Queen), the first author, and the first Native Canadian to be thus honored” (Gerson 90). Despite this recognition of Johnson as an important Canadian figure, a number of biographers and literary critics deride Johnson’s literary contributions and contend that her abilities as a performer, whether she appeared in her signature Native or evening dress, largely contributed to the high reputation her work received during her lifetime (see, for example, Van Steen or Jackel).
Ceremony unveiling the Pauline Johnson monument at her burial site in Stanley Park, 1922.
Also, W. J. Keith wrote: "Pauline Johnson's life was more interesting than her writing ... with ambitions as a poet, she produced little or nothing of value in the eyes of critics who emphasize style rather than content." (2002)
Margaret Atwood admits that she did not examine literature written by Native authors in Survival, her seminal text on Canadian literature, and states that upon its publication in 1973 she could not find any such works. She questions, “Why did I overlook Pauline Johnson? Perhaps because, being half-white, she somehow didn’t rate as the real thing, even among Natives; although she is undergoing reclamation today” (243). Atwood’s commentary indicates that questions regarding the validity of Johnson’s claims to Aboriginal identity have contributed to her critical neglect.
As Atwood suggests, in recent years, Pauline Johnson’s writings and performances have been rediscovered by a number of literary, feminist, and postcolonial critics who appreciate her importance as a New Woman and figure of resistance to dominant ideas about race, gender, Native Rights, and Canada (Strong-Boag and Gerson 3). Furthermore, the increase in First Nations literary activity during the 1980s and 1990s prompted writers and scholars to investigate Native oral and written literary history—a history to which Johnson made a significant contribution (Strong-Boag and Gerson 174).
In addition to her commemoration on a stamp, two Canadian schools are named in Johnson's honour: an elementary school in West Vancouver and a high school in Brantford, Ontario. In addition, her childhood home, Chiefswood, has been turned into a national historic site.
Title page of The White Wampum
- The White Wampum. London: John Lane, 1895. (Early Canadiana Online) ISBN 0-665076-18-5
- In the Shadows. Gouverneur, NY: Adirondack, [1898?] (Early Canadiana Online) ISBN 0-665084-94-3
- Canadian Born. Toronto: Musson, 1903. ISBN 0-665731-99-X
- Flint and Feather: the Complete Poems of E. Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake). Toronto: Musson, 1912. (Project Gutenberg) ISBN 0-919645-26-7
Stories collected by Pauline Johnson
- Legends of Vancouver. Vancouver: Thompson Stationery Co., 1911. (Project Gutenberg) ISBN 1-550820-24-9
- Shagganappi. Toronto: Briggs, 1913. (Project Gutenberg) ISBN 0-665771-95-9
- The Moccasin Maker. Toronto, William Briggs, 1913. (Project Gutenberg) ISBN 0-66-573499-9
- Atwood, Margaret. “A Double-Bladed Knife: Subversive Laughter in Two Stories by Thomas King.” Ed. W.H. New. Native Writers and Canadian Writing. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1990. ISBN 0-774803-71-1
- Gerson, Carole. “‘The Most Canadian of all Canadian Poets’: Pauline Johnson and the Construction of a National Literature.” Canadian Literature 158 (1998): 90-107.
- Gerson, Carole and Veronica Strong-Boag. Paddling Her Own Canoe: The Times and Texts of E. Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake). Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2000. ISBN 0-802041-62-0
- Gray, Charlotte. Flint and Feather: The Life and Times of E. Pauline Johnson, Tekahionwake. Toronto: HarperCollins, 2002. ISBN 0-002000-65-2
- Jackel, David. “Johnson, Pauline.” The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature. 1983. ISBN 0-195402-83-9
- Johnston, Shelia M.F. Buckskin & Broadcloth: A Celebration of E. Pauline Johnson-Tekahionwake 1861-1913. Toronto: Natural Heritage, 1997. ISBN 1-896219-20-9
- Keith, W. J., "2040." Canadian Book Review Annual. Toronto: Peter Martin Associates, 2002.
- Monture, Rick. "'Beneath the British Flag': Iroquois and Canadian Nationalism in the Work of Pauline Johnson and Duncan Campbell Scott." Essays on Canadian Writing 75 (2002): 118-141.
- Van Steen, Marcus. Pauline Johnson: Her Life and Work. Toronto: Musson, 1965.
- Crate, Joan. Pale as Real Ladies: Poems for Pauline Johnson, London, ON: Brick Books, 1991. ISBN 0-919626-43-2
- Johnson (Tekahionwake), E. Pauline. E. Pauline Johnson Tekahionwake: Collected Poems and Selected Prose. Ed. Carole Gerson and Veronica Strong-Boag. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. ISBN 0-802036-70-8
- Keller, Betty. Pauline: A Biography of Pauline Johnson. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1981. ISBN 0-888943-22-9
- Lyon, George W. “Pauline Johnson: A Reconsideration.” Studies in Canadian Literature 15 (1990): 136-159.
- McRaye, Walter. Pauline Johnson and Her Friends. Toronto: Ryerson, 1947.
- Shrive, Norman. “What Happened to Pauline?” Canadian Literature 13 (1962): 25-38.
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