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Bill Gates

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Beyond Gutenberg


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Building Trust In Technology


By Bill Gates
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Communications Revolution


By Bill Gates
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Complete Don T Delete


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Enter Generation I


By Bill Gates
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Go Into Your Pc


By Bill Gates
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Microprocessors Upgraded


By Bill Gates
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New World Of Work


By Bill Gates
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Now For An Intelligent Internet


By Bill Gates
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Security In A Connected World


By Bill Gates
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Shaping The Internet Age


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Tech In A Time Of Trouble


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The Disappearing Computer


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The New Road Ahead


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The Next Step For Technology


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The Pc 20 Years Young


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The Second Wave


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The Wright Brothers


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What Innovations


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Why I Hate Spam


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Bill Gates

William Henry Gates III

Bill Gates at IT Forum in Copenhagen, Denmark, November 16, 2004, photo by Kees de Vos
Born: October 28, 1955 (age 51)
United StatesSeattle, Washington, USA
Occupation: Chairman, Microsoft
Co-Chair, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Salary: US$966,667[1]
Net worth: 7.5% to US$53.0 billion (2006)[2]
Spouse: Melinda Gates
Children: 3
Website: Microsoft PressPass
Gates Foundation

William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955 in Seattle, Washington) is an American entrepreneur and the co-founder, chairman, former chief software architect, and former CEO of Microsoft, the world's largest software company. Forbes magazine's list of The World's Billionaires has ranked him as the richest person on earth for the last thirteen consecutive years, with a current net worth of approximately $53 billion. When family wealth is considered, his family ranks second behind the Walton family.[3][4]

Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. Although he is widely respected by people who see his wealth as a product of intelligence and foresight,[5][6] his business tactics have often been criticized as unethical or anti-competitive, and have, in some instances, been ruled as such in court.[7][8] Since amassing his fortune, Gates has pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, established in 2000.

Contents

Early life

William Henry Gates III was born in Seattle, Washington to William H. Gates, Jr. (now Sr.) and Mary Maxwell Gates. His family was wealthy; his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate Bank and the United Way, and her father, J. W. Maxwell, was a [9] Several writers claim that Maxwell set up a million-dollar trust fund for Gates.[10] A 1993 biographer who interviewed both Gates and his parents (among other sources) found no evidence of this and dismissed it as one of the "fictions" surrounding Gates's fortune.[9] Gates denied the trust fund story in a 1994 interview[11] and indirectly in his 1995 book The Road Ahead.[12]

Bill Gates was arrested at least twice in New Mexico: once in 1975 for speeding and driving without a license, and in 1977 when this photograph was taken.
Bill Gates was arrested at least twice in New Mexico: once in 1975 for speeding and driving without a license, and in 1977 when this photograph was taken.

Gates excelled in elementary school, particularly in mathematics and the sciences. At thirteen he enrolled in the Lakeside School, Seattle's most exclusive preparatory school where tuition in 1967 was $5,000 (Harvard tuition that year was $1,760). When he was in the eighth grade, the school mothers used proceeds from a rummage sale to buy Lakeside an ASR-33 teletype terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric computer.[9] Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC and was excused from math classes to pursue his interest. After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted he and other students sought time on other systems, including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation, which banned the Lakeside students for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.

At the end of the ban, the Lakeside students (Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, and Kent Evans) offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for free computer time. Rather than use the system via teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, not only in BASIC but FORTRAN, LISP, and machine language as well. The arrangement with CCC continued until 1970, when it went out of business. The following year Information Sciences Inc. hired the Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them not only computer time but royalties as well. At age 14, Gates also formed a venture with Allen, called Traf-O-Data, to make traffic counters based on the Intel 8008 processor. That first year he made $20,000, however when his age was found out they lost a lot of business. [13][14]

According to a press inquiry, Bill Gates stated that he scored 1590 on his SATs.[15] He enrolled at Harvard University in the fall of 1973 intending to get a pre-law degree,[16] but did not have a definite study plan,[17] While at Harvard he met his future business partner, Steve Ballmer.

Microsoft

Main article: Microsoft

BASIC

Microsoft staff photo from December 7, 1978. Gates in bottom row, first from left.
Microsoft staff photo from December 7, 1978. Gates in bottom row, first from left.

After reading the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics that demonstrated the Altair 8800, Gates contacted MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems), the creators of the new microcomputer, to inform them that he and others were working on a BASIC interpreter for the platform.[18] In reality, Gates and Allen did not have an Altair and had not written code for it; they merely wanted to gauge MITS's interest. MITS president Ed Roberts agreed to meet them for a demo, and over the course of a few weeks they developed an Altair emulator that ran on a minicomputer, and then the BASIC interpreter. The demonstration, held at MITS's offices in Albuquerque, was a success and resulted in a deal with MITS to distribute the interpreter as Altair BASIC. Gates took a leave of absence from Harvard to work with Allen at MITS, and they dubbed their partnership Micro-Soft.[19]

Microsoft's BASIC was popular with computer hobbyists, but Gates discovered that a pre-market copy had leaked into the community and was being widely copied and distributed. In February 1976, Gates wrote an Open Letter to Hobbyists in the MITS newsletter saying that MITS could not continue to produce, distribute, and maintain high-quality software without payment.[20] This letter was unpopular with many computer hobbyists, but Gates persisted in his belief that software developers should be able to demand payment. Microsoft became independent of MITS in late 1976, and it continued to develop programming language software for various systems.

According to Gates, people at Microsoft often did more than one job during the early years; whoever answered the phone when an order came in was responsible for packing and mailing it. Gates oversaw the business details, but continued to write code as well. In the first five years, he personally reviewed every line of code the company shipped, and often rewrote parts of it as he saw fit.[21]

IBM partnership

In 1984, Bill Gates appeared on the cover of TIME Magazine; he has since appeared seven more times.
In 1984, Bill Gates appeared on the cover of TIME Magazine; he has since appeared seven more times.

In 1980 IBM approached Microsoft to make the BASIC interpreter for its upcoming personal computer, the IBM PC. When IBM's representatives mentioned that they needed an operating system, Gates referred them to Digital Research, Inc. (DRI) makers of the widely used CP/M operating system.[22] IBM's discussions with Digital Research went poorly, and they did not reach a licensing agreement. IBM representative Jack Sams mentioned the licensing difficulties during a subsequent meeting with Gates and told him to get an acceptable operating system. A few weeks later Gates proposed using 86-DOS (QDOS), an operating system similar to CP/M that Seattle Computer Products had made for hardware similar to the PC. Microsoft made a deal with SCP to become the exclusive licensing agent, and later the full owner, of 86-DOS, but did not mention that IBM was a potential customer. After adapting the operating system for the PC, Microsoft delivered it to IBM as PC-DOS in exchange for a one-time fee.[23] Gates never understood why DRI had walked away from the deal, and in later years he claimed that DRI founder Gary Kildall capriciously "went flying" during an IBM appointment, a characterization that Kildall and other DRI employees would deny.

Later, after Compaq successfully cloned the IBM BIOS, the market saw a flood of IBM PC clones.[24] Microsoft was quick to license DOS to other manufacturers, calling it MS-DOS (for Microsoft Disk Operating System). By marketing MS-DOS aggressively to manufacturers of IBM-PC clones, Microsoft went from a small player to one of the major software vendors in the home computer industry. Microsoft continued to develop operating systems as well as software applications.[25][26]

Windows

See also: History of Microsoft Windows
Bill Gates representing Macintosh software vendors in 1984
Bill Gates representing Macintosh software vendors in 1984

In the early 1980s Microsoft introduced its own version of the graphical user interface (GUI), based on ideas pioneered by the Xerox corporation, and further pioneered and developed by Apple.[27] Microsoft released "Windows" as an addition and alternative to their DOS command line, and to compete with other systems on the market that employed a GUI. By the early 1990s, Windows had pushed other DOS-based GUIs like GEM and GEOS out of the market. The release of Windows 3.0 in 1990 was a tremendous success, selling around 10 million copies in the first two years and cementing Microsoft's dominance in operating systems sales.[28]

By continuing to ensure, by various means, that most computers came with Microsoft software pre-installed, the Microsoft corporation eventually became the largest software company in the world, earning Gates enough money that Forbes Magazine named him the wealthiest person in the world for several years.[29][30] Gates served as the CEO of the company until 2000, when Steve Ballmer took the position.[18] Microsoft has thousands of patents, and Gates has nine patents to his name.[31]

Strategy and management

Bill Gates giving his deposition at Microsoft on August 27, 1998
Bill Gates giving his deposition at Microsoft on August 27, 1998

Since Microsoft's founding in 1975 and as of 2006, Gates has had primary responsibility for Microsoft's product strategy. He has aggressively broadened the company's range of products, and wherever Microsoft has achieved a dominant position he has vigorously defended it. Many decisions that have led to antitrust litigation over Microsoft's business practices have had Gates' approval. In the 1998 United States v. Microsoft case, Gates gave deposition testimony that several journalists characterized as evasive. He argued with examiner David Boies over the definitions of words such as: compete, concerned, ask, and we.[32] BusinessWeek reported:

Early rounds of his deposition show him offering obfuscatory answers and saying 'I don't recall' so many times that even the presiding judge had to chuckle. Worse, many of the technology chief's denials and pleas of ignorance were directly refuted by prosecutors with snippets of e-mail Gates both sent and received.[33]

Gates later said that he had simply resisted attempts by Boies to mischaracterize his words and actions. As to his demeanor during the deposition, he said "Whatever that penalty is should be levied against me: rudeness to Boies in the first degree."[34] Despite Gates' denials, the judge ruled that Microsoft had committed monopolization and tying, blocking competition, in violation of the Sherman Act.

Gates meets regularly with Microsoft's senior managers and program managers. By all accounts he can be extremely confrontational during these meetings, particularly when he believes that managers have not thought out their business strategy or have placed the company's future at risk.[35][11] He has been described shouting at length at employees before letting them continue, with such remarks as "That's the stupidest thing I've ever heard!" and "Why don't you just give up your options and join the Peace Corps?"[36] However, he often backs down when the targets of his outbursts respond frankly and directly.[37] When he is not impressed with the technical hurdles managers claim to be facing, he sometimes quips, "Do you want me to do it over the weekend?"[38][39]

Gates' role at Microsoft for most of its history has been primarily a management and executive role. However, he was an active software developer in the early years, particularly on the company's programming language products. (See also: DONKEY.BAS) He has not officially been on a development team since working on the TRS-80 Model 100 line, but he wrote code as late as 1989 that shipped in the company's products.[38] On June 15, 2006, Gates announced that he would transition out of his day-to-day role over the next two years to dedicate more time to philanthropy. He appointed Ray Ozzie as the new Chief Software Architect and planned to remain as chairman, advising the company on key projects.[40] One of his last initiatives before announcing his departure was the creation of a robotics software group at Microsoft.

Personal life

Bill Gates and Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Davos. January 26, 2003
Bill Gates and Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Davos. January 26, 2003

Gates married Melinda French of Dallas, Texas on January 1, 1994. They have three children: Jennifer Katharine Gates (1996), Rory John Gates (1999) and Phoebe Adele Gates (2002). Bill Gates' house is one of the most expensive houses in the world, and is a modern 21st century earth-sheltered home in the side of a hill overlooking Lake Washington in Medina, Washington. According to King County public records, as of 2006, the total assessed value of the property (land and house) is $125 million, and the annual property tax is just under $1 million. Also among Gates' private acquisitions is the Codex Leicester, a collection of writings by Leonardo da Vinci which Gates bought for USD $30.8 million at an auction in 1994.[41]

Gates's e-mail address has been widely publicized, and he received as many as 4,000,000 e-mails per day in 2004, most of which were spam. He has almost an entire department devoted to filtering out junk emails.[42] Gates says that most of this junk mail "offers to help [him] get out of debt or get rich quick", which "would be funny if it weren't so irritating".[43]

Wealth and investments

Gates has been number one on the "Forbes 400" list from 1993 through to 2006 and number one on Forbes list of "The World's Richest People" from 1995 to 2006 with around 50 billion U.S. dollars. In 1999, Gates's wealth briefly surpassed $100 billion causing him to be referred to in the media as a "centibillionaire".[44] Since 2000 the nominal value of his Microsoft holdings has declined due to a fall in Microsoft's stock price after the dot-com bubble and the multi-billion dollar donations he has made to his charitable foundations. In May 2006, Gates said in an interview that he wished that he were not the richest man in the world, stating that he disliked the attention it brought.[45]

Gates has several investments outside Microsoft. He founded Corbis, a digital imaging company, in 1989. In 2004 he became a director of Berkshire Hathaway, the investment company headed by longtime friend Warren Buffett.[46] He is a client of Cascade Investment Group, a wealth management firm with diverse holdings.

Philanthropy

Gates in Poland, 2006
Gates in Poland, 2006

In 2000, Gates founded the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, a charitable organization, with his wife. Bill Gates Sr. has credited David Rockefeller's generosity and extensive philanthropy as an influence on his son. The two of them met several times with him and have modeled their giving in part on the Rockefeller family's philanthropic focus on global problems being ignored by governments and other organizations.[1]

The foundation's grants have provided funds for college scholarships for under-represented minorities, AIDS prevention, diseases prevalent in third world countries, and other causes. In 2000, the Gates Foundation endowed the University of Cambridge with $210 million for the Gates Cambridge Scholarships. The Foundation has also pledged over $7 billion to its various causes, including $1 billion to the United Negro College Fund. According to a 2004 Forbes magazine article, Gates gave away over $29 billion to charities from 2000 onwards. These donations are usually cited as sparking a substantial change in attitudes towards philanthropy among the very rich, with philanthropy becoming the norm.[47]

Public school support

One of Gates' primary interests is improving the public schools. He has donated substantially toward that goal, and also appeared on programs with personalities such as Oprah Winfrey to emphasize the crisis in American education. He has also appeared before Congress for this purpose.

Transition

On June 16, 2006, Gates announced that he would move to a part-time role with Microsoft (leaving day-to-day operations management) in July, 2008 to begin a full-time career in philanthropy, but would remain as chairman. Gates credited Warren Buffett with influencing his decision to commit himself to charitable causes.[48] Days later, Buffett announced that he would begin matching Gates' contributions to the Foundation.[49]

Publicity

Bill Gates at Consumer Electronics Show, January 4, 2006
Bill Gates at Consumer Electronics Show, January 4, 2006

Awards and recognition

Time Magazine named Gates one of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th century, as well as one of the 100 most influential people of 2004, 2005 and again in 2006. Gates and Oprah Winfrey are the only two people to make all four lists. Time also collectively named Gates, his wife Melinda and U2's lead singer Bono as the 2005 Persons of the Year for their humanitarian efforts. That same year Gates was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. In 2006, Gates Foundation was awarded the Premio Príncipe de Asturias en Cooperación Internacional. In a list compiled by the magazine New Statesman in 2006, he was voted eighth in the list of "Heroes of our time".[50] Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999, named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994, ranked number one in the "Top 50 Cyber Elite" by Time in 1998, ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999 and was included in The Guardian as one of the "Top 100 influential people in media" in 2001.

Gates has received three honorary doctorates, from the Nyenrode Business Universiteit, Breukelen, The Netherlands in 2000,[51] the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden in 2002 and Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan in 2005. Gates was also given an [52] in addition to having entomologists name the Bill Gates flower fly, Eristalis gatesi, in his honor.[53]

Bill and Melinda received the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation on May 4, 2006, in recognition of their world impact through charity giving.[54] In November 2006, he and his wife were awarded the Order of the Aztec Eagle for their philanthropic work around the world in the areas of health and education, particularly in Mexico, and specifically in the program "Un país de lectores".[55]

Popular portrayals

Main article: List of portrayals of and references to Bill Gates

Gates is often characterized as the quintessential example of a super-intelligent "nerd" with immense power and wealth. This has in turn led to pop culture stereotypes of Gates as a tyrant or evil genius, often resorting to ruthless business techniques. As such he has been the subject of numerous parodies in film, television, and video games.

References and footnotes

  1. ^ Year 2006 compensation: salary $616,667, bonus $350,000. From Microsoft's Proxy Statement
  2. ^ Net worth: from Forbes: The 400 Richest Americans, dated March 9, 2006.
  3. ^ "The 100 Richest In The World", Times Online, Times Newspapers, April 22, 2006.
  4. ^ "Sunday Times Rich List - Rules of engagement", Times Online, Times Newspapers, April 26, 2006.
  5. ^ Staff writer. "Vietnam gives Gates star welcome", BBC News, 2006-04-22. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  6. ^ Baldauf, Scott. "Gates, the biggest thing in India since the Beatles", Christian Science Monitor, 2002-11-14. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  7. ^ Shenk, David (1998-01-26). "Slamming Gates". The New Republic. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  8. ^ Findings of Fact. United States v. Microsoft (1998)
  9. ^ a b c Manes, Stephen; and Paul Andrews (1993). Gates: How Microsoft's Mogul Reinvented an Industry and Made Himself The Richest Man in America. Touchstone. ISBN 0-385-42075-7. 
  10. ^ Wallace, James; and Jim Erickson (1993). Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-56886-4. 
  11. ^ a b Staff writer (1994-12-08). "The Bill Gates Interview". Playboy. Retrieved on 2006-05-16.
  12. ^ Stross, Randall E. (1997). The Microsoft Way. Perseus Books Group. ISBN 020132797X. 
  13. ^ Gates, Bill. Interview with David Allison., Bellevue, WA. 1993.
  14. ^ Chposky, James; and Ted Leonsis (1989). Blue Magic: The People, the Power and the Politics Behind the IBM Personal Computer. Grafton. ISBN 0-246-13445-3. 
  15. ^ Seligman, Dan (1997-10). "Want to get rich? Don't get born in Afghanistan". Forbes.
  16. ^ ^ Gates, Bill. Interview with Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN, Redmond, WA. 2000-01-01. (Transcript).
  17. ^ a b Key Events In Microsoft History. Retrieved on 1 October 2005. (DOC format)
  18. ^ Microsoft history at the History of Computing Project. Retrieved on August 11, 2005.
  19. ^ Bill Gates, An Open Letter to Hobbyists, February 3, 1976
  20. ^ Gates, Bill. "Remarks by Bill Gates" Waterloo, Ontario (2005-10-13). Retrieved on 2006-12-11
  21. ^ John Steele Gordon Michael Maiello (2002-12-23). Pioneers Die Broke. Forbes. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  22. ^ MS DOS and PC DOS. Lexikon's History of Computing. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  23. ^ Booting Your PC: Getting Up Close & Personal With A Computer’s BIOS. Smart Computing (November 1999). Retrieved on 2006-09-02.
  24. ^ "When It Comes To DOS, You Now Have A Choice", Smart Computing, June 1994. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  25. ^ "Microsoft to Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS)", Smart Computing, March 2002. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  26. ^ Opinion, Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation. U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, 1994.
  27. ^ http://www.kernelthread.com/mac/vpc/win.html
  28. ^ The software superpower. BBC (2000-01-14). Retrieved on 2006-09-05.
  29. ^ Bill Gates tops Forbes rich list. BBC (2004-09-24). Retrieved on 2006-09-05.
  30. ^ USPTO - "Microsoft Corporation": 5373 patents. DB search
  31. ^ CNN, Gates deposition makes judge laugh in court, November 17, 1998
  32. ^ BusinessWeek, Microsoft's Teflon Bill, 11/30/98
  33. ^ Heilemann, John (2000-11). "The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing But The Truth". Wired. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  34. ^ Steve Ballmer (October 9, 1997). Steve Ballmer Speech Transcript - Church Hill Club. Microsoft PressPass. Microsoft. Retrieved on 2006-05-16.
  35. ^ David Bank (February 1, 1999). Breaking Windows. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2006-05-16.
  36. ^ The Gates Operating System. Time (January 13, 1997). Retrieved on 2006-05-16.
  37. ^ a b Gates, Bill. "Remarks by Bill Gates" San Diego, CA (1997-09-26). Retrieved on 2006-05-16
  38. ^ Herbold, Robert J. (2002-01-01). "Inside Microsoft: Balancing Creativity and Discipline". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved on 2006-05-16.
  39. ^ Microsoft PressPass. "Microsoft Announces Plans for July 2008 Transition for Bill Gates", Microsoft PressPass, June 15, 2006.
  40. ^ http://www.mos.org/leonardo/bio.html
  41. ^ Staff writer. "Bill Gates 'most spammed person'", BBC News, 2004-11-18. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  42. ^ Gates, Bill. "Why I Hate Spam", Wall Street Journal, 2003-06-23. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  43. ^ Bill Gates - Founder of Microsoft. Lycos Canada Money.
  44. ^ Bolger, Joe. "I wish I wasn't the richest man in the world, says Bill Gates", The Times, 2006-05-05. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  45. ^ Fried, Ina. "Gates joins board of Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway", CNET News.com, 2004-12-14. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  46. ^ A 25 February 2006 survey of philanthropy by The Economist noted, "The media, which used to take little notice of charitable donations, now eagerly rank the super-rich by their munificence..."
  47. ^ Carol J. Loomis. "Warren Buffett Gives Away his Fortune", Fortune, 2006-06-25. Retrieved on 2006-12-09.
  48. ^ NPR: "Buffett Gift Sends $31 Billion to Gates Foundation," NPR All Things Considered, 26-June-2006, webpage: NPR-Buffett.
  49. ^ Jason Cowley. "Heroes of our time - the top 50", New Statesman, May 22, 2006.
  50. ^ nyenrode.nl
  51. ^ BBC, Knighthood for Microsoft's Gates, March 2, 2005
  52. ^ Bill Gates' Flower Fly Eristalis gatesi Thompson
  53. ^ Bill and Melinda Gates named in Top 10 Persons of 2006, Retrieved May 9, 2006
  54. ^ http://diariooficial.segob.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=4936346 (Spanish) Diario Oficial de la Federacion, Proclamation of the Award

Further reading

  • Bank, David (2001). Breaking Windows: How Bill Gates Fumbled the Future of Microsoft. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-0315-1. 
  • Edstrom, Jennifer; and Marlin Eller (1998). Barbarians Led by Bill Gates: Microsoft from the Inside. Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 0-8050-5755-2. 
  • Gates, Bill (1999). Business @ The Speed of Thought. ISBN 0-446-67596-2. 
  • Gates, Bill (1995). The Road Ahead. ISBN 0-14-026040-4. 
  • Lesinski, Jeanne M. (2000). Bill Gates. Lerner Publications Company. ISBN 0-8225-9689-X. 
  • Lowe, Janet (1998). Bill Gates Speaks: Insight from the World's Greatest Entrepreneur. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-29353-9. 
  • Manes, Stephen; and Paul Andrews (1993). Gates: How Microsoft's Mogul Reinvented an Industry and Made Himself the Richest Man in America. Touchstone. ISBN 0-671-88074-8. 
  • Rivlin, Gary (2000). The Plot to Get Bill Gates. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-8129-9073-0. 
  • Wallace, James; and Jim Erickson (1993). Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire. Harper Business. ISBN 0-88730-629-2. 
  • Wallace, James (1997). Overdrive: Bill Gates and the Race to Control Cyberspace. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-18041-6. 


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