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Aldous Huxley

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By Aldous Huxley
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Ends And Means


By Aldous Huxley
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Aldous Huxley


Born Aldous Leonard Huxley
July 26, 1894(1894-07-26)
Godalming, Surrey, England
Died November 22, 1963 (aged69)
Los Angeles, California
Occupation Writer, author
Notable work(s) Brave New World, Point Counter Point, The Doors of Perception

Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. He spent the latter part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death in 1963. Best known for his novels and wide-ranging output of essays, he also published short stories, poetry, travel writing, and film stories and scripts.

Huxley was a humanist and pacifist, but was also latterly interested in spiritual subjects such as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism. By the end of his life Huxley was considered, in some academic circles, a leader of modern thought and an intellectual of the highest rank.[1]

He was also well known for advocating and taking hallucinogens.

Contents

Biography

See also: Huxley family

Early years

Family tree
Family tree

Aldous Huxley was born in Godalming, Surrey, England in 1894. He was the third son of the writer and school-master Leonard Huxley and first wife, Julia Arnold who founded Prior's Field School. Julia was the niece of Matthew Arnold and the sister of Mrs. Humphrey Ward. Aldous was the grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley, the zoologist, agnostic and controversialist ("Darwin's Bulldog"). His brother Julian Huxley and half-brother Andrew Huxley also became outstanding biologists.

Huxley began his learning in his father's well-equipped botanical laboratory, then continued in a school named Hillside. His teacher was his mother who supervised him for several years until she became terminally ill. After Hillside, he was educated at Eton College. Huxley's mother died in 1908, when he was fourteen. Three years later he suffered an illness (keratitis punctata) which "left [him] practically blind for two to three years".[2] Aldous's near-blindness disqualified him from service in World War I. Once his eyesight recovered sufficiently, he was able to study English literature at Balliol College, Oxford. He graduated in 1916 with first class honours.

"I belive his blindness was a blessing in disguise. For one thing, it put paid to his idea of taking up medicine as a career...His uniqueness lay in his universalism. He was able to take all knowledge for his province." [3]

Following his education at Balliol, Huxley was financially indebted to his father and had to earn a living. He taught French for a year at Eton, where Eric Blair (later known by the pen name George Orwell) was among his pupils, but was remembered by another as an incompetent and hopeless teacher who couldn’t keep discipline. Nevertheless, Blair and others were impressed by his use of words.[4] For a short while in 1918, he was employed acquiring provisions at the Air Ministry.

Significantly, Huxley also worked for a time in the 1920s at the technologically-advanced Brunner and Mond chemical plant in Billingham Teesside, and the most recent introduction to his famous science fiction novel Brave New World (1932) states that this experience of 'an ordered universe in a world of planless incoherence' was one source for the novel. Mustapha Mond is a character in the book.

Huxley completed his first (unpublished) novel at the age of seventeen and began writing seriously in his early twenties. His earlier work includes important novels on the dehumanizing aspects of scientific progress, most famously Brave New World, and on pacifist themes (for example, Eyeless in Gaza). In Brave New World Huxley portrays a society operating on the principles of mass production and Pavlovian conditioning. Huxley was strongly influenced by F. Matthias Alexander and included him as a character in Eyeless in Gaza.

Middle years

Left to right: Lady Ottoline Morrell, Maria Huxley, Lytton Strachey, Duncan Grant, and Vanessa Bell.
Left to right: Lady Ottoline Morrell, Maria Huxley, Lytton Strachey, Duncan Grant, and Vanessa Bell.

During World War I, Huxley spent much of his time at Garsington Manor, home of Lady Ottoline Morrell, working as a farm labourer. Here he met several Bloomsbury figures including D. H. Lawrence, Bertrand Russell and Clive Bell. Later, in Crome Yellow (1921 age 27) he caricatured the Garsington lifestyle. In 1919 he married Maria Nys, a Belgian woman he had met at Garsington. They had one child, Matthew Huxley (1920 – 2005), who had a career as an epidemiologist. The family lived in Italy part of the time in the 1920s, where Huxley would visit his friend D. H. Lawrence. Following Lawrence's death in 1930, he edited his letters (1933).

In 1937, Huxley moved to Hollywood, California with his wife Maria, son Matthew, and friend Gerald Heard. He lived in the U.S., mainly in southern California, till his death, but also for a time in Taos, New Mexico, where he wrote Ends and Means (published in 1937). In this work he examines the fact that although most people in modern civilization agree that they want a world of 'liberty, peace, justice, and brotherly love', they have not been able to agree on how to achieve it. Heard introduced Huxley to Vedanta, meditation, and vegetarianism through the principle of ahimsa. In 1938 Huxley befriended J. Krishnamurti, whose teachings he greatly admired. He also became a Vedantist in the circle of Swami Prabhavananda, and introduced Christopher Isherwood to this circle. Not long after, Huxley wrote his book on widely held spiritual values and ideas, The Perennial Philosophy, which discussed the teachings of renowned mystics of the world.

Huxley became a close friend of Remsen Bird, president of Occidental College. He spent much time at the college, which is in the Eagle Rock neighborhood of Los Angeles. The college appears as "Tarzana College" in his satirical novel After Many a Summer Dies the Swan (1939). The novel won Huxley that year's James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction. Huxley also incorporated Bird into the novel.

During this period Huxley earned some Hollywood income as a writer. His friend Anita Loos, a novelist and screenwriter, got him the opportunity. Huxley got screen credit for Pride and Prejudice (1940) and was paid for his work on a number of other films. However, his experience in Hollywood was not a success. When he wrote a synopsis of Alice in Wonderland, Walt Disney rejected it on the grounds that "he could only understand every third word". Huxley's leisurely development of ideas, it seemed, was not suitable for the movie moguls, who demanded fast, dynamic dialogue above all else.

For most of his life, since the illness in his teens which left Huxley nearly blind, his eyesight was poor (despite the partial recovery which had enabled him to study at Oxford). Around 1939, Huxley encountered the Bates Method for better eyesight, and a teacher, Margaret Corbett, who was able to teach him in the method. In 1940, Huxley relocated from Hollywood to a forty-acre ranchito in the high desert hamlet of Llano, California, in northernmost Los Angeles County. Huxley then said that his sight improved dramatically with the Bates Method and the extreme and pure natural lighting of the southwestern American desert. He reported that for the first time in over 25 years, he was able to read without glasses and without strain. He even tried driving a car along the dirt road beside the ranch. He wrote a book about his successes with the Bates Method, The Art of Seeing which was published in 1942 (US), 1943 (UK).

However, while his vision had undoubtedly improved, it remained imperfect and variable. Ten years later, in 1952, Bennett Cerf was present when Huxley spoke at a Hollywood banquet, wearing no glasses and apparently reading his paper from the lectern without difficulty:

"Then suddenly he faltered—and the disturbing truth became obvious. He wasn't reading his address at all. He had learned it by heart. To refresh his memory he brought the paper closer and closer to his eyes. When it was only an inch or so away he still couldn't read it, and had to fish for a magnifying glass in his pocket to make the typing visible to him. It was an agonizing moment."[5]

This incident well exemplifies Huxley’s own words in The Art of Seeing:

"The most characteristic fact about the functioning of the total organism, or any part of the organism, is that it is not constant, but highly variable. ... People with unimpaired eyes and good habits of using them possess, so to speak, a wide margin of visual safety. Even when their seeing organs are functioning badly, they still see well enough for most practical purposes. Consequently they are not so acutely conscious of variations in visual functioning as are those with bad seeing habits and impaired eyes. These last have little or no margin of safety; consequently any diminution in seeing power produces noticeable and often distressing results.”

On 21 October 1949 Huxley wrote to George Orwell, author of Nineteen Eighty-Four, congratulating Orwell on "how fine and how profoundly important the book is." In his letter to Orwell, he predicted that "Within the next generation I believe that the world's leaders will discover that infant conditioning and narco-hypnosis are more efficient, as instruments of government, than clubs and prisons, and that the lust for power can be just as completely satisfied by suggesting people into loving their servitude as by flogging them and kicking them into obedience."[6]

Post-war

After World War II Huxley applied for United States citizenship, but his application was continuously deferred on the grounds that he would not say he would take up arms to defend the U.S., so he withdrew it. Nevertheless, he remained in the country, and in 1959 he turned down an offer of a Knight Bachelor by the The Doors of Perception (the title deriving from some lines in the book The Marriage of Heaven and Hell by William Blake), and Heaven and Hell. Some of his writings on psychedelics became frequent reading among early hippies. While living in Los Angeles, Huxley was a friend of Ray Bradbury. According to Sam Weller's biography of Bradbury, the latter was dissatisfied with Huxley, especially after Huxley encouraged Bradbury to take psychedelic drugs.

In 1955 Huxley's wife, Maria, died of breast cancer. In 1956 he married Laura Archera (1911-2007), also an author. She wrote a biography of Huxley. In 1960 Huxley himself was diagnosed with cancer, and in the years that followed, with his health deteriorating, he wrote the Utopian novel Island, and gave lectures on "Human Potentialities" at the Esalen institute, which were fundamental to the forming of the Human Potential Movement. On his deathbed, unable to speak, Huxley made a written request to his wife for "LSD, 100 g, intramuscular.". According to her account of his death (in her book This Timeless Moment), she obliged with an injection at 11:45 am and another a couple of hours later. He died at 5:21 pm on 22 November 1963, aged 69. Media coverage of his death was overshadowed by the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, on the same day, as was the death of the Irish author C. S. Lewis. Huxley's ashes were interred in the family grave at the Watts Cemetery, Compton, Guildford, Surrey, England.

Huxley's only child, Matthew Huxley (d. 10 February 2005) was also an author, as well as an educator, anthropologist and prominent epidemiologist. His work ranged from promoting universal health care to establishing standards of care for nursing home patients and the mentally ill to investigating the question of what is a socially sanctionable drug.[7] Matthew's first marriage, to documentary filmmaker Ellen Hovde, ended in divorce. His second wife died in 1983. He was survived by his third wife, Franziska Reed Huxley; and two children from his first marriage, Trevenen Huxley and Tessa Huxley.

Literary themes

Crome Yellow (1921) attacks Victorian and Edwardian social principles which led to World War I and its terrible aftermath. Together with Huxley's second novel, Antic Hay (1923), the book expresses much of the mood of disenchantment of the early 1920s. It was intended to reflect, as Huxley stated in a letter to his father, "the life and opinions of an age which has seen the violent disruption of almost all the standards, conventions and values current in the present epoch."

Huxley's reputation for iconoclasm and emancipation grew. He was condemned for his explicit discussion of sex and free thought in his fiction. Antic Hay, for example, was burned in Cairo and in the years that followed many of Huxley's books were received with disapproval or banned at one time or another. Following the exclusion of Brave New World, Point Counter Point, and even Island from TIME magazine's list of 'All-Time 100 Novels' there was uproar. One critic became particularly incensed, proclaiming such a decision to be "blasphemous".

Huxley, however, said that a novel should be full of interesting opinions and arresting ideas, describing his aim as a novelist as being 'to arrive, technically, at a perfect fusion of the novel and the essay'; and with Point Counter Point (1928), Huxley wrote his first true 'novel of ideas', the type of thought-provoking fiction with which he is now associated.

One of his main ideas was pessimism about the cultural future of society, a pessimism which sprang largely from his visit to the United States between September 1925 and June 1926. He recounted his experiences in Jesting Pilate (1926): "The thing which is happening in America is a reevaluation of values, a radical alteration (for the worse) of established standards", and it was soon after this visit that he conceived the idea of writing a satire of what he had encountered.[8]

A Brave New World (1932) as well as Island (1962) form the cornerstone of Huxley's damning indictment of commercialism based upon goods generally manufactured from other countries. Indeed also, a Brave New World (along with Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four and Yevgeni Zamyatin's We) helped form the anti-utopian or dystopian tradition in literature and has become synonymous with a future world in which the human spirit is subject to conditioning and control. Island acts as an antonym to Brave New World; it is described as "one of the truly great philosophical novels".[9]

He devoted his time at his small house at Llano in the Mojave Desert to a life of contemplation, mysticism, and experimentation with hallucinogenic drugs. His suggestions in The Doors of Perception (1954) that mescaline and lysergic acid were 'drugs of unique distinction' which should be exploited for the 'supernaturally brilliant' visionary experience they offered provoked even more outrage than his passionate defense of the Bates method in The Art of Seeing (1942). However, the book went on to become a cult text in the psychedelic 1960s, and inspire the name of the rock band "The Doors". Huxley also appears on the sleeve of the Beatles' landmark 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.

Awards

In 1959 Aldous Huxley received the American Academy of Arts and Letters Award of Merit for the novel Brave New World. He received the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 1939 for After Many a Summer Dies the Swan.

Films

Notable works include the original screenplay for Disney's animated Alice in Wonderland (which was rejected because it was too literary[10]), two productions of Brave New World, one of Point Counter Point, one of Eyeless in Gaza, and one of Ape and Essence. He was a credited screenwriter for Pride and Prejudice (1940), co-authored the screenplay for Jane Eyre (1944) with John Houseman, and worked on the screenplay of Madame Curie (1943) without credit.

Director Ken Russell's 1971 film The Devils, starring Vanessa Redgrave and Oliver Reed, was adapted from Huxley's The Devils of Loudun. A made-for-television adaptation of Brave New World was made in 1990.

Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Aldous Huxley
  • On truth: "Great is truth, but still greater, from a practical point of view, is silence about truth. By simply not mentioning certain subjects... totalitarian propagandists have influenced opinion much more effectively than they could have by the most eloquent denunciations."
  • On psychological totalitarianism [11] (1959): "And it seems to me perfectly in the cards that there will be within the next generation or so a pharmacological method of making people love their servitude, and producing ... a kind of painless concentration camp for entire societies, so that people will in fact have their liberties taken away from them but will rather enjoy it, because they will be distracted from any desire to rebel by propaganda, brainwashing, or brainwashing enhanced by pharmacological methods."
  • On social organizations: "One of the many reasons for the bewildering and tragic character of human existence is the fact that social organization is at once necessary and fatal. Men are forever creating such organizations for their own convenience and forever finding themselves the victims of their home-made monsters."
  • On heroin: "Who lives longer: the man who takes heroin for two years and dies, or the man who lives on roast beef, water, and potatoes till ninety-five? One passes his twenty-four months in eternity. All the years of the beef-eater are lived only in time."
  • On experience: "Experience is not what happens to a man; it is what a man does with what happens to him." – Texts and Pretexts, 1932
  • "After silence, that which comes nearest to expressing the inexpressible is music." Music at Night, 1931
  • "Liberty? Why it doesn't exist. There is no liberty in this world, just gilded cages." Antic Hay, 1923
  • "Democracy and freedom will be the theme of every broadcast and editorial - but democracy and freedom in a strictly Pickwickian sense." - Brave New World Revisited
  • On religion: "You never see animals going through the absurd and often horrible fooleries of magic and religion... Dogs do not ritually urinate in the hope of persuading heaven to do the same and send down rain. Asses do not bray a liturgy to cloudless skies. Nor do cats attempt, by abstinence from cat's meat, to wheedle the feline spirits into benevolence. Only man behaves with such gratuitous folly. It is the price he has to pay for being intelligent but not, as yet, quite intelligent enough." - Point Counter Point
  • "God deliver us from such criminal imbecility." Ends and Means

Bibliography

Novels
  • Crome Yellow (1921)
  • Antic Hay (1923)
  • Those Barren Leaves (1925)
  • Point Counter Point (1928)
  • Brave New World (1932)
  • Eyeless in Gaza (1936)
  • After Many a Summer Dies the Swan (1939)
  • Time Must Have a Stop (1944)
  • Ape and Essence (1948)
  • The Genius and the Goddess (1955)
  • Island (1962)
Short stories
  • Limbo (1920)
  • Mortal Coils (1922)
  • Little Mexican (U.S. - Young Archimedes) (1924)
  • Two or Three Graces (1926)
  • Brief Candles (1930)
  • Jacob's Hands; A Fable (Late 1930s)
  • Collected Short Stories (1957)
Poetry
  • The Burning Wheel (1916)
  • Jonah (1917)
  • The Defeat of Youth (1918)
  • Leda (1920)
  • Arabia Infelix (1929)
  • The Cicadas (1931)
  • First Philosopher's Song
Travel writing
  • Along The Road (1925)
  • Jesting Pilate (1926) The author recounts his experiences travelling through six countries, offering his observations on their people, cultures and customs.
  • Beyond the Mexique Bay (1934)
Drama
  • Mortal Coils - A Play
  • The World of Light
  • The Discovery, Adapted from Francis Sheridan
Essay collections
  • On the Margin (1923)
  • Along the Road (1925)
  • Essays New and Old (1926)
  • Proper Studies (1927)
  • Do What You Will (1929)
  • Vulgarity in Literature (1930)
  • Music at Night (1931)
  • Texts and Pretexts (1932)
  • The Olive Tree (1936)
  • Words and their Meanings (1940)
  • The Art of Seeing (1942)
  • The Perennial Philosophy (1945)
  • Science, Liberty and Peace (1946)
  • Themes and Variations (1950)
  • Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow (1952)
  • The Doors of Perception (1954)
  • Heaven and Hell (1956)
  • Adonis and the Alphabet (1956)
  • Collected Essays (1958)
  • Brave New World Revisited (1958)
  • Literature and Science (1963)
Philosophy
  • Ends and Means (1937)
  • The Perennial Philosophy (1944) (ISBN 0-06-057058-X)
Biography and nonfiction
  • The Devils of Loudun (1953) (ISBN 0-78670-368-7)
  • Grey Eminence (1941) (ISBN 0-70110-802-9)
  • Selected Letters (2007) (ISBN 1-56663-629-9)
Children's literature
  • The Crows of Pearblossom (1967)
  • The Travails and Tribulations of Geoffrey Peacock (1967)
Collections
  • Texts and Pretexts (1933)
  • Collected Short Stories (1957)
  • Moksha: Writings on Psychedelics and the Visionary Experience (1977)
  • The Human Situation: Lectures at Santa Barbara, 1959 (1977)

References

  1. ^ Thody, Philip (1973). Huxley: A Biographical Introduction. Scribner.
  2. ^ Huxley, Aldous (1939). "biography and bibliography (appendix)", After Many A Summer Dies The Swan (1st Perennial Classic Ed.). Harper & Row, Publishers, 243.
  3. ^ Julian Huxley 1965. Aldous Huxley 1894–1963: a memorial volume. Chatto & Windus, London. p22
  4. ^ Crick, Bernard (1992). George Orwell: A Life. Penguin Books.
  5. ^ From Bennet Cerf’s column in The Saturday Review, April 12, 1952, quoted in Gardner, Martin (1957). Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover Publications.
  6. ^ Smith, Grover (1969). Letters of Aldous Huxley. Chatto & Windus.
  7. ^ Author, NIMH Epidemiologist Matthew Huxley Dies at 84 (washingtonpost.com)
  8. ^ Huxley, Aldous (2003). "British Literature (1918-1945)", Words Words Words. La Spiga Languages, 217-218.
  9. ^ The Times
  10. ^ Bradshaw, David (1993). "Introduction", Aldous Huxley's "Those Barren Leaves" (Vintage Classics Edn., 2005). Vintage, Random House, 20 Vauxhall Brigade Road, London, xii.
  11. ^ More Than 54,000 Great Quotations To Inspire You!


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