Author

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin books and biography

Sponsored Links


Address To The Public


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Autobiography Of Benjamin Franklin


By Benjamin Franklin
Biography

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Autobiography Of Benjamin Franklin


By Benjamin Franklin
American History

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Benjamin Franklin


By Benjamin Franklin
Biography

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Boston And London


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Disapproving And Accepting The Constitution 1787


By Benjamin Franklin
American Revolution

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

London


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Measuring Risk In Complex Stochastic Systems


By Benjamin Franklin
Mathematics

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Paris


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Philadelphia 1726 To 1757


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Philadelphia 1785 To 1790


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Poor Richard Improved


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

Prayer Speech


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!

The Constitution 1787


By Benjamin Franklin
Commentary

Download Details Report

Share this Book!
										   

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin

Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 1777


6th President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania
In office
1785 – 1788
Preceded by John Dickinson
Succeeded by Thomas Mifflin

Born January 17, 1706
Boston, Massachusetts
Died April 17, 1790
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Political party None
Spouse Deborah Read
Profession Scientist, writer, politician
Religion Deism

Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6] – April 17, 1790) was one of the best known Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a leading author, politician, printer, scientist, philosopher, publisher, inventor, civic activist, and diplomat. As a scientist he was a major figure in the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As a political writer and activist he, more than anyone, invented the idea of an American nation[1], and as a diplomat during the American Revolution, he secured the French alliance that made independence possible.

Franklin was noted for his curiosity, his writings (popular, political and scientific), and his diversity of interests. His wise and scintillating writings are proverbial to this day. As a leader of the Enlightenment, he gained the recognition of scientists and intellectuals across Europe. An agent in London before the Revolution, and Minister to France during it, he more than anyone defined the new nation in the minds of Europe. His success in securing French military and financial aid was the turning point for American victory over Britain. He invented the lightning rod; he was an early proponent of colonial unity; historians hail him as the "First American." The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania marked Franklin's 300th birthday in January 2006 with a wide array of exhibitions, and events citing Franklin's extraordinary accomplishments throughout his illustrious career.

Born in Boston, Massachusetts to a devout Anglican tallow-maker, he was baptized at Old South Meeting House. Franklin learned printing from his older brother and became a newspaper editor, printer, and merchant in Philadelphia, becoming very wealthy. He spent many years in England and published the famous Poor Richard's Almanac and the Pennsylvania Gazette. He formed both the first public lending library and fire department in America as well as the Junto, a political discussion club.

He became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. A diplomatic genius, Franklin was almost universally admired among the French as American minister to Paris, and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. From 1775 to 1776, Franklin was Postmaster General under the Continental Congress and from 1785 to his death in 1790 was President of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. Towards the end of his life, he became one of the most prominent abolitionists.

Franklin was interested in science and technology, carrying out his famous electricity experiments and inventing, in addition to his very important lightning rod, the Franklin stove, catheter, swimfins, glass harmonica, and bifocals. He also played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and Franklin and Marshall College. He was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge, the oldest learned society in the United States, in 1769. In addition, Franklin was a noted linguist, fluent in five languages. He is typically recognized as a polymath.

Contents

Biography

Ancestry

Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was born at Ecton, Northamptonshire, England on December 23, 1657, the son of Thomas Franklin, a blacksmith and farmer, and Jane White. His mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher and his wife Mary Morrill, a former indentured servant. Both of his parents were devout Christians. A descendent of the Folgers, J. A. Folger, would go on to found Folgers Coffee in the 19th century.

Around 1677, Josiah married Anne Child at Ecton, and over the next few years had three children. These half-siblings of Benjamin Franklin included Elizabeth (March 2, 1678), Samuel (May 16, 1681), and Hannah (May 25, 1683).

Sometime during the second half of 1683, the Franklins left England for Boston, United States. They had several more children in Boston, including Josiah Jr. (August 23, 1685), Ann (January 5, 1687), Joseph (February 5, 1688), and Joseph (June 30, 1689) (the first Joseph having died soon after birth).

Josiah's first wife, Anne, died in Boston on July 9, 1689. He was married to Abiah Folger on November 25, 1689 in the Old South Church of Boston by Samuel Willard.

Josiah and Abiah had the following children: John (December 7, 1690), Peter (November 22, 1692), Mary (September 26, 1694), James (February 4, 1697), Sarah (July 9, 1699), Ebenezer (September 20, 1701), Thomas (December 7, 1703), Benjamin (January 17, 1706), Lydia (August 8, 1708), and Jane (March 27, 1712).

Early life

Autograph of Benjamin Franklin
Enlarge
Autograph of Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street in Boston on January 17, 1706 [1] and baptized at Old South Meeting House. His father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler, a maker of candles and soap, whose second wife, Abiah Folger, was Benjamin's mother. Josiah's marriages produced 20 children; Benjamin was the fifteenth child and youngest son. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy, but only had enough money to send him to school for two years. He attended Boston Latin School but did not graduate; he continued his education through voracious reading. Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" for Franklin, his schooling ended when he was ten. He then worked for his father for a time and at 12 he became an apprentice to his brother James, a printer. When Ben was 15, James created the 'New England Courant', the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies. When denied the option to write to the paper, Franklin invented the pseudonym of 'Mrs. Silence Dogood' who was ostensibly a middle-aged widow. The letters were published in the paper and became a subject of conversation around town. Neither James nor the Courant's readers were aware of the ruse and James was unhappy with Ben when he discovered the popular correspondent was his younger brother. Franklin left his apprenticeship without permission and in so doing became a fugitive.

At the age of 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, seeking a new start in a new city. When he first arrived he worked in several printer shops around town. However, he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects. After a few months, while working in a printing house, Franklin was induced by Pennsylvania Governor Sir William Keith to go to London, ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary for establishing another newspaper in Philadelphia. Finding Keith's promises of backing a newspaper to be empty, Franklin worked as a compositor in a printer's shop in what is now the Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great in the Smithfield area of London. Following this, he returned to Philadelphia in 1726 with the help of a merchant named Thomas Denham, who gave Franklin a position as clerk, shopkeeper, and bookkeeper in Denham's merchant business.

Upon Denham's death, Franklin returned to his former trade. By 1730, Franklin had set up a printing house of his own and had contrived to become the publisher of a newspaper called "The Pennsylvania Gazette." The Gazette gave Franklin a forum for agitation about a variety of local reforms and initiatives through printed essays and observations. Over time, his commentary, together with a great deal of savvy about cultivating a positive image of an industrious and intellectual young man, earned him a great deal of social respect. Even after Franklin had achieved fame as a scientist and statesman, he would habitually sign his letters with the unpretentious 'B. Franklin, Printer'.

Franklin was initiated into the local Freemason lodge in 1731 (new style), and became grand master in 1734, indicating his rapid rise to prominence in Philadelphia.[2] He edited and published the first Masonic book in America, a reprint of James Anderson's The Constitutions of the Free-Masons that same year. He remained a Freemason for the rest of his life.

Deborah Read

In 1724, while a boarder in the Read home, Franklin had courted Deborah Read before going to London at Governor Keith's request. At that time, Miss Read's mother was wary of allowing her daughter to wed a seventeen-year old who was on his way to London. Her own husband having recently died, Mrs. Read declined Franklin's offer of marriage.

While Franklin was finding himself in London, Deborah married a man named John Rodgers. This proved to be a regrettable decision. Rodgers shortly avoided his debts and prosecution by fleeing to Barbados, leaving Deborah behind. With Rodgers' fate unknown, and bigamy illegal, Deborah was not free to remarry formally.

Franklin himself had his own actions to ponder. In 1730, Franklin acknowledged an illegitimate son named William, who eventually became the last Loyalist governor of New Jersey. While the identity of William's mother remains unknown, perhaps the responsibility of an infant child gave Franklin a reason to take up residence with Deborah Read. William was raised in the Franklin household but eventually broke with his father over the treatment of the colonies at the hands of the crown. However, he was not above using his father's notoriety to enhance his own standing.

Franklin established a common law marriage with Deborah Read on September 1, 1730. Benjamin and Deborah Franklin had two children (in addition to raising William). The first was Francis Folger Franklin, born October 1732; he died of smallpox in 1736. Sarah Franklin, nicknamed Sally, was born in 1743. She eventually married Richard Bache, had seven children, and cared for her father in his old age.

Deborah's fear of the sea meant that she never accompanied Franklin on any of his extended trips to Europe, despite his repeated requests.

Success as author

In 1733, Franklin began to issue the famous Poor Richard's Almanac (with content both original and borrowed) on which much of his popular reputation is based. Adages from this almanac such as "A penny saved is twopence clear" (often misquoted as "A penny saved is a penny earned") and "Fish and visitors stink in three days" remain common quotations in the modern world. He sold about ten thousand copies a year.

In 1758, the year in which he ceased writing for the Almanac, he printed Father Abraham's Sermon, one of the most famous pieces of literature produced in Colonial America.

Franklin was well-known as a humorist and a collection of his humorous writings can be found in the book: Fart Proudly: Writings of Benjamin Franklin You Never Read in School.

Franklin's autobiography, published after his death, has become one of the classics of the genre.

Inventions and scientific inquiries

Franklin was a prodigious inventor. Among his many creations were the lightning rod, the glass harmonica, the Franklin stove, bifocal glasses, and the flexible urinary catheter. Although Franklin never patented any of his own inventions, he was a supporter of the rights of inventors and authors and was responsible [citation needed] for inserting into the United States Constitution the provision for limited-term patents and copyrights.

In 1743, Franklin founded the American Philosophical Society to help scientific men discuss their discoveries. He began the electrical research that, along with other scientific inquiries, would occupy him for the rest of his life (in between bouts of politics and moneymaking).

An illustration from Franklin's paper on
Enlarge
An illustration from Franklin's paper on "Water-spouts and Whirlwinds."

In 1748, he retired from printing and went into other businesses. He created a partnership with his foreman, David Hall, which provided Franklin with half of the shop's profits for 18 years. This lucrative business arrangement provided leisure time for study, and in a few years he had made discoveries that gave him a reputation with the educated throughout Europe and especially in France.

These include his investigations of electricity. Franklin proposed that "vitreous" and "resinous" electricity were not different types of "electrical fluid" (as electricity was called then), but the same electrical fluid under different pressures (See electrical charge). He was the first to label them as positive and negative respectively,[3] and the first to discover the principle of conservation of charge.[4] In 1750, he published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm that appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. On May 10, 1752, Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment (using a 40-foot-tall iron rod instead of a kite) and extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. On June 15, Franklin conducted his famous kite experiment Lightning Rods were sharp because there was a better chance of lightning hitting it. Following a series of experiments on Franklin's own house, lightning rods were installed on the Academy of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania) and the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall) in 1752.[5]

In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1753, and in 1756 he became one of the few eighteenth century Americans to be elected as a Fellow of the Society. The cgs unit of electric charge has been named after him: one franklin (Fr) is equal to one statcoulomb.

On October 21, 1743, a storm blowing from the north-east denied Franklin the opportunity of a witnessing a lunar eclipse. In correspondence with his brother, Franklin learned that the same storm had not reached Boston until after the eclipse, despite the fact that Boston is to the north-east of Philadelphia. He deduced that storms do not always travel in the direction of the prevailing wind, a concept which would have great influence in meteorology.[6]

Franklin noted a principle of refrigeration by observing that on a very hot day, he stayed cooler in a wet shirt in a breeze than he did in a dry one. To understand this phenomenon more clearly Franklin conducted experiments. On one warm day in Cambridge, England in 1758, Franklin and fellow scientist John Hadley experimented by continually wetting the ball of a mercury thermometer with ether and using bellows to evaporate the ether. With each subsequent evaporation, the thermometer read a lower temperature, eventually reaching 7 °F (-14 °C). Another thermometer showed the room temperature to be constant at 65 °F (18 °C). In his letter “Cooling by Evaporation,” Franklin noted that “one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer’s day." Each year the frozen food industry gives a Franklin Award in honor of his observing this phenomenon.

Musical endeavors

Franklin is known to have played the violin, the harp, and the guitar. He also composed music, notably a string quartet in early classical style, and invented (a much improved version of) the glass armonica (not to be confused with the harmonica which wasn't invented until long after Franklin) which soon found its way to Europe. [2]

Public life

Franklin and several other members of a philosophical association joined their resources in 1731 and began the first public library in Philadelphia. The newly founded Library Company ordered its first books in 1732, mostly theological and educational titles, but by 1741 the library also included works on history, geography, poetry, exploration, and science. The success of this library encouraged the opening of libraries in other American cities, and Franklin felt that this device contributed to the American colonies' struggle to maintain their privileges.

In 1736 Franklin created the Union Fire Company, the first volunteer firefighting company in America. In the same year he printed a new currency for New Jersey based on innovative anti-counterfeiting techniques which he had devised.

As he matured, Franklin began to concern himself more with public affairs. In 1743, he set forth a scheme for The Academy and College of Philadelphia. He was appointed President of the Academy in November 13, 1749, and it opened on August 13, 1751. At its first commencement, on May 17, 1757, seven men graduated; six with a Bachelor of Arts and one as Master of Arts. It was later merged with the University of the State of Pennsylvania, to become the University of Pennsylvania.

In 1753, both Harvard and Yale awarded him honorary degrees [7].

In 1751, Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond obtained a charter from the Pennsylvania legislature to establish a hospital. Pennsylvania Hospital was the first hospital in what was to become the United States of America.

Join, or Die: This political cartoon by Franklin urged the colonies to join together during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War).
Join, or Die: This political cartoon by Franklin urged the colonies to join together during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War).

Franklin became involved in Philadelphia politics, and progressed rapidly. In October 1748 he was selected as a councilman, in June 1749 he became a Justice of the Peace for Philadelphia, and in 1751 he was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly. On August 10, 1753 Franklin was appointed joint deputy postmaster-general of North America. His most notable service in domestic politics was his reform of the postal system, but his fame as a statesman rests chiefly on his subsequent diplomatic services in connection with the relations of the colonies with Great Britain, and later with France.

In 1754 he headed the Pennsylvania delegation to the Albany Congress. This meeting of several colonies had been requested by the Board of Trade in England to improve relations with the Indians and defense against the French. Franklin proposed a broad Plan of Union for the colonies. While the plan was not adopted, elements of it found their way into the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.

In 1757, he was sent to England by the Pennsylvania Assembly as a colonial agent to protest against the political influence of the Penn family, the proprietors of the colony. For five years he remained there, striving to end the proprietors' prerogative to overturn legislation from the elected Assembly, and their exemption from paying taxes on their land. His lack of influential allies in Whitehall led to the failure of this mission. In 1759, the University of St Andrews awarded him an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree. In 1762, Oxford University awarded Franklin an honorary doctorate for his scientific accomplishments and from then on he went by "Doctor Franklin." He also managed to secure a post for his illegitimate son, William Franklin, as Colonial Governor of New Jersey.

During his stay in London, Franklin became involved in radical politics. He was a member of the Club of Honest Whigs, alongside thinkers such as Richard Price.

In 1756, Franklin became a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce (now Royal Society of Arts or RSA, which had been founded in 1754), whose early meetings took place in coffee shops in London's Covent Garden district, close to Franklin's main residence in Craven Street (the only one of his residences to survive and which opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House museum on 17th January 2006). After his return to America, Franklin became the Society's Corresponding Member and remained closely connected with the Society. The RSA instituted a Benjamin Franklin Medal in 1956 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of Franklin's birth and the 200th anniversary of his membership of the RSA.

During his stays at Craven Street in London between 1757 and 1775, Franklin developed a close friendship with his landlady Margaret Stevenson and her circle of friends and relations, in particular her daughter Mary, who was more often known as Polly.

In 1759, he was to visit Edinburgh with his son, and he recalled his conversations there as "the densest happiness of my life." [3]

Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Wilson, 1759.
Enlarge
Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Wilson, 1759.

Coming of Revolution

On his return to America (1762), Franklin became involved in the Paxton Boys' affair, writing a scathing attack on their massacre of Christian American Indians, and eventually persuading them to disperse.[8]. Many of the Paxton Boys' supporters were Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and German Reformed or Lutherans from the rural west of Pennsylvania, leading to claims that Franklin was biased in favor of the urban Quaker elite of the East. Because of these accusations, and other attacks on his character, Franklin lost his seat in the 1764 Assembly elections. This defeat, however, allowed him the opportunity to return to London, where he would seal his reputation as a pro-American radical.

In 1764, Franklin was dispatched to England as an agent for the colony, this time to petition the King to resume the government from the hands of the proprietors. During this visit he would also become colonial agent for Georgia, New Jersey and Massachusetts. In London, he actively opposed the proposed Stamp Act, despite accusations by opponents in America that he had been complicit in its creation. His principled opposition to the Stamp Act, and later to the Townshend Acts of 1767, would lead to the end of his dream of a career in the British Government, and his alliance with proponents of colonial independence. It also led to an irreconcilable break with his son William, who remained loyal to the British.

Franklin, an engraving from a painting by Joseph Duplessis.
Enlarge
Franklin, an engraving from a painting by Joseph Duplessis.

In September 1767, Franklin visited Paris with his usual traveling partner, Sir John Pringle. News of his electrical discoveries was widespread in France. His reputation meant that he was introduced to many influential scientists and politicians, and also to King Louis XV.

While living in London in 1768, he developed a phonetic alphabet in A Scheme for a new Alphabet and a Reformed Mode of Spelling. This reformed alphabet discarded six letters Franklin regarded as redundant, and substituted six new letters for sounds he felt lacked letters of their own; however, his new alphabet never caught on and he eventually lost interest. [9]

In 1771 Franklin traveled extensively around the British Isles staying with, among others, Joseph Priestley and David Hume. In Dublin, Franklin was invited to sit with the members of the Irish Parliament rather than in the gallery. He was the first American to be given this honor.[10]

1773 saw the publication of two of Franklin's most celebrated pro-American satirical essays: Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One, and An Edict by the King of Prussia.[11] He also published an Abridgement of the Book of Common Prayer, anonymously with Francis Dashwood. Among the unusual features of this work is a funeral service reduced to six minutes in length, "to preserve the health and lives of the living".

Hutchinson Letters

Franklin obtained some private letters from Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson and lieutenant governor Andrew Oliver which proved they were encouraging London to crack down in the rights of the Bostonians. Franklin sent them to America where they escalated the tensions. Franklin now appeared to the British as the fomenter of serious trouble. Hopes for a peaceful solution ended as he was systematically ridiculed and humiliated by the Privy Council. He left London in March 1775.

Declaration of Independence

John Trumbull depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting their work to the Congress.
Enlarge
John Trumbull depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting their work to the Congress. [4]

By the time Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, the American Revolution had begun with fighting at Lexington and Concord. The New England militia had trapped the main British army in Boston. The Revolutionary War had begun. The Pennsylvania Assembly unanimously chose Franklin as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress. In 1776 he was a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and made several small changes to Thomas Jefferson's draft.

Ambassador to France: 1776-1785

In December of 1776, he was dispatched to France as commissioner for the United States. He lived in a home in the Parisian suburb of Passy, donated by Jacques-Donatien Le Ray de Chaumont who helped the United States. Franklin remained in France until 1785, and was such a favorite of French society that it became fashionable for wealthy French families to decorate their parlors with a painting of him. He was highly flirtatious in the French manner (but did not have any actual affairs.) He conducted the affairs of his country towards the French nation with great success, which included securing a critical military alliance and negotiating the Treaty of Paris (1783). When he finally returned home in 1785, he received a place only second to that of George Washington as the champion of American independence. Le Ray honored him with a commissioned portrait painted by Joseph Duplessis that now hangs in the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.

After his return from France, Franklin became an abolitionist, freeing both of his slaves. He eventually became president of The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage. [12]

In 1787 he served as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. He played an honorific role, but seldom engaged in debate. He is the only Founding Father who is a signatory of all four of the major documents of the founding of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris, the Treaty of Alliance with France, and the United States Constitution.

In 1787, a group of prominent ministers in Lancaster, Pennsylvania proposed the foundation of a new college to be named in Franklin's honor. Franklin donated £200 towards the development of Franklin College; which is now called Franklin and Marshall College.

Between 1771 and 1788, he finished his autobiography. While it was at first addressed to his son, it was later completed for the benefit of mankind at the request of a friend.

In his later years, as Congress was forced to deal with the issue of slavery, Franklin wrote several essays that attempted to convince his readers of the importance of the abolition of slavery and of the integration of Africans into American society. These writings included:

  • An Address to the Public from the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, (1789)
  • Plan for Improving the Condition of the Free Blacks (1789), and
  • Sidi Mehemet Ibrahim on the Slave Trade

    Virtue, religion and personal beliefs

    Although Franklin's parents had intended for him to have a career in the church, Franklin said that he became disillusioned with organized religion, after learning about Deism. "I soon became a thorough Deist."[14] He also attacked Christian principles of free will and morality in a 1725 pamphlet, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain. [15] He consistently attacked religious dogma, arguing that morality was more dependent upon virtue and benevolent actions rather than on strict obedience to religious orthodoxy: "I think opinions should be judged by their influences and effects; and if a man holds none that tend to make him less virtuous or more vicious, it may be concluded that he holds none that are dangerous, which I hope is the case with me."[16] Franklin later stated that the fundamental arguments he espoused in that dissertation were "not so clever a performance as [he] once thought." [17]

    Like the other advocates of republicanism, Franklin emphasized that the new republic could survive only if the people were virtuous. Indeed all his life he had been exploring the role of civic and personal virtue, as expressed in Poor Richard's aphorisms.

    Like most Enlightenment intellectuals, Franklin separated virtue, morality, and faith from organized religion, although he felt that if religion in general grew weaker, morality, virtue, and society in general would also decline. Thus he wrote Thomas Paine, "If men are so wicked with religion, what would they be if without it." As Morgan shows, Franklin was a proponent of all religions. He prayed to "Powerful Goodness" and referred to God as the "INFINITE." As John Adams noted, Franklin was a mirror in which people saw their own religion: "The Catholics thought him almost a Catholic. The Church of England claimed him as one of them. The Presbyterians thought him half a Presbyterian, and the Friends believed him a wet Quaker." Whatever else Benjamin Franklin was, concludes Morgan, "he was a true champion of generic religion." [5]

    Soon after his 1725 pamphlet, in 1728, he outlined his personal beliefs in "Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion" [18]. Here Franklin explains that God is worthy of continual praise since "it is all I can return for his many Favours and great Goodness to me."

    On July 4, 1776, Congress appointed a committee that included Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams to design the Great Seal of the United States. This committee created and approved the first proposed design for the seal (which ultimately was not adopted). That preliminary design featured the motto: "Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God." This design was to portray a scene from the Book of Exodus, complete with Moses, the Israelites, the pillar of fire, and George III depicted as Pharaoh [19].

    Franklin's beliefs later came to involve a God more involved in human affairs than that found among strict deists. At the Constitutional Convention in 1787, the elderly Franklin requested that each day's session begin with prayers. Franklin rhetorically asked, "And have we now forgotten that powerful friend? Or do we imagine that we no longer need his assistance?" Franklin proceeds, "the longer I live, the more convincing proof I see of this truth that God Governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid?" "I also believe," Franklin continued, "that without his [God's] concurring Aid, we shall succeed in this political Building no better than the Builders of Babel." [20]. It is noteworthy that although Franklin's motion was seconded, the discussion seems to have been minimal. There is no evidence that group or public prayers were said thereafter.

    Although Franklin may have financially supported one particular Presbyterian group in Philadelphia [21], it nevertheless appears that he never formally joined any particular Christian denomination or any other religion.

    Virtue

    Franklin sought to cultivate his character by a plan of thirteen virtues, which he developed at age 20 (in 1726) and continued to practice in some form for the rest of his life. His autobiography (see references below) lists his thirteen virtues as:

    1. "TEMPERANCE. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation."
    2. "SILENCE. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation."
    3. "ORDER. Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time."
    4. "RESOLUTION. Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve."
    5. "FRUGALITY. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing."
    6. "INDUSTRY. Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions."
    7. "SINCERITY. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly."
    8. "JUSTICE. Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty."
    9. "MODERATION. Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve."
    10. "CLEANLINESS. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation."
    11. "TRANQUILLITY. Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable."
    12. "CHASTITY. Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation."
    13. "HUMILITY. Imitate Jesus and Socrates."

    Death and afterwards

    Memorial marble statue of Ben Franklin
    Enlarge
    Memorial marble statue of Ben Franklin

    Benjamin Franklin died on April 17, 1790 at the advanced age of 84. His funeral was attended by about 20,000 people. He was interred in Christ Church Burial Ground in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Christ Church Burial Ground is also the home of Benjamin Rush. One of the houses he lived in Craven Street was previously marked with a blue plaque, and has since been opened to the public as the Benjamin Franklin House [22]. In 1728, as a young man, Franklin wrote what he hoped would be his own epitaph: "The Body of B. Franklin Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the Work shall not be wholly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and Amended By the Author. He was born on January 17, 1706. Died 17."[23] Franklin's actual grave, however, as he specified in his final will[24], simply reads "Benjamin and Deborah Franklin."

    In the book The Life of Benjamin Franklin as written by himself, a passage (obviously not written by himself) reads thus about Franklin's death: "...when his pain and difficulty of breathing entirely left him, and his family were flattering themselves wit the hopes of his recovery, when an imposthumations, which had formed itself in his lungs, suddenly burst, and discharged a great quantity of matter, which he continued to throw up while he had strength to do it; but, as that failed, the organ of inspiration became gradually oppressed; a calm lethargic state succeeded, and on the 17t of April, 1790, abd eleven o'clock at night, he quietly expired, closing a long and useful life of eighty-four years and three months"

    At his death, Franklin bequeathed £1000 (about $4400 at the time) each to the cities of Boston and Philadelphia, in trust for 200 years. The origin of the trust began in 1785 when a French mathematician named Charles-Joseph Mathon de la Cour wrote a parody of Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack called Fortunate Richard. In it he mocked the unbearable spirit of American optimism represented by Franklin. The Frenchman wrote a piece about Fortunate Richard leaving a small sum of money in his will to be used only after it had collected interest for 500 years. Franklin, who was 79 years old at the time, wrote back to the Frenchman, thanking him for a great idea and telling him that he had decided to leave a bequest of 1,000 pounds each to his native Boston and his adopted Philadelphia, on the condition that it be placed in a fund that would gather interest over a period of 200 years. As of 1990, over $2,000,000 had accumulated in Franklin's Philadelphia trust since his death. During the lifetime of the trust, Philadelphia used it for a variety of loan programs to local residents. From 1940 to 1990, the money was used mostly for mortgage loans. When the trust came due, Philadelphia decided to spend it on scholarships for local high school students. Franklin's Boston trust fund accumulated almost $5,000,000 during that same time, and eventually was used to establish a trade school that, over time, became the Franklin Institute of Boston. (Excerpt from Philadelphia Inquirer article by Clark De Leon)

    The lasting legacy of Benjamin Franklin has resulted in the appearance of his image in various places. Franklin's likeness adorns the American $100 bill. As a result, $100 bills are sometimes referred to in slang as "Benjamins" or "Franklins." From 1948 to 1964, Franklin's portrait was also on the half dollar. He has also appeared on a $50 bill in the past, as well as several varieties of the $100 bill from 1914 and 1918, and every $100 bill from 1928 to the present. Franklin also appears on the $1,000 Series EE

In 1998, workmen restoring Franklin's London home (Benjamin Franklin House) dug up the remains of six children and four adults hidden below the home. The Times reported on February 11, 1998:

Initial estimates are that the bones are about 200 years old and were buried at the time Franklin was living in the house, which was his home from 1757 to 1762 and from 1764 to 1775. Most of the bones show signs of having been dissected, sawn or cut. One skull has been drilled with several holes. Paul Knapman, the Westminster Coroner, said yesterday: "I cannot totally discount the possibility of a crime. There is still a possibility that I may have to hold an inquest."

The Friends of Benjamin Franklin House (the organization responsible for the restoration of Franklin's house at 36 Craven Street in London) note that the bones were likely placed there by William Hewson, who lived in the house for 2 years and who had built a small anatomy school at the back of the house. They note that while Franklin likely knew what Hewson was doing, he probably did not participate in any dissections because he was much more of a physicist than a medical man. [25]

Exhibitions

"The Princess and the Patriot: Ekaterina Dashkova, Benjamin Franklin and the Age of Enlightenment" exhibition opened in Philadelphia in February 2006 and is scheduled to run through December 2006. Benjamin Franklin and Dashkova met only once, in Paris in 1781. Franklin was 75 and Dashkova was 37. Franklin and Dashkova were both evidently impressed with each other.[citation needed] Franklin invited Dashkova to become the first woman to join the American Philosophical Society, and the only one to be so honored for another 80 years. Later, Dashkova reciprocated by making him the first American member of the Russian Academy. The correspondence between Franklin and Dashkova is the highlight of the exhibition.

Franklin in popular culture

 
Enlarge
Franklin on the U.S. one hundred dollar bill.
Franklin on the U.S. one hundred dollar bill.

Franklin, in his "Poor Richard" persona, helped create popular culture in America. In turn he has been included in many different popular culture media, of which this is a small, recent sample.

  • Day-light saving time came from his essay "An Economical Project".
  • When Franklin was minister to France in the 1770s, Paris was awash in miniatures, painting, statues and representations of Ben, usually dressed as a frontiersman.
  • The city of Philadelphia contains around 5,000 likenesses of Franklin—half of which are located on the University of Pennsylvania campus. Additionally, a local actor portrays Franklin in full costume, charging $1,776 for each appearance.
  • Franklin appears as a main character in the Broadway musicals Ben Franklin in Paris (portrayed by Robert Preston) and 1776 (portrayed by Howard da Silva).
  • The popular television show MythBusters (Discovery channel) tested Franklin's famous kite experiment with electricity.
  • A young Franklin appears in Neal Stephenson's novel of 17th century science and alchemy, Quicksilver.
  • Walt Disney's cartoon Ben and Me (1953), based on the book by Robert Lawson, counterfactually explains to children that Franklin's achievements were actually the ideas of a mouse named Amos.
  • Franklin surprisingly appears as a character in Tony Hawk's Underground 2, a skateboarding video game. Players encounter Franklin in his hometown of Boston and are able to play as him there after.
  • Proud Destiny by Lion Feuchtwanger, a novel mainly about Pierre Beaumarchais and Franklin beginning in 1776's Paris.
  • Franklin appears in the LucasArts Entertainment Company Game Day of the Tentacle.
  • Franklin is portrayed in a central role in the PBS cartoon Liberty's Kids voiced by Walter Cronkite.
  • The 2004 movie National Treasure has the main characters trying to collect clues left by Franklin to discover a treasure that he supposedly hid. The character played by Nicolas Cage was named "Benjamin Franklin Gates", in following with the Gates family tradition to name sons after Franklin and his contemporaries.
  • The Franklin Templeton Investments firm (originally Franklin Distributors, Inc.) was named in honor of Franklin and uses his portrait in their logo.
  • The children's novel Qwerty Stevens: Stuck in Time with Benjamin Franklin has the main characters using their time machine to bring Franklin into modern times and then to travel back with him to 1776.
  • Franklin is one of the main inventors of Gregory Keyes' The Age of Unreason tetralogy.
  • A 1992 Saturday Night Live spoof of Quantum Leap, "Founding Fathers", had Franklin traveling through time with George Washington and Thomas Jefferson to help modern day Americans with deficit reduction, only to find twentieth century reporters are only interested in scandal and sensationalism.
  • Franklin appears in several episodes of Histeria, voiced by actor Billy West similarly to Jay Leno. He is frequently shown flying his kite in a lightning storm and being electrocuted as a running gag.
  • The science-fiction TV show Voyagers! had the main characters helping Franklin fly his kite in one episode and save his mother from a fictionalized Salem Witch Trial in the next episode.
  • "Julian McGrath," played by Cole Sprouse and Dylan Sprouse, appears as Franklin in a school play in the Adam Sandler comedy Big Daddy.
  • The time-travel card game Early American Chrononauts includes a card called Franklin's Kite which players can symbolically acquire from the year 1752.
  • Stan Freberg's comedic audio recording, Stan Freberg Presents the United States of America: The Early Years, depicts all of Franklin's accomplishments as having been made by his young apprentice, Myron.
  • Beavis and Butthead once got into trouble after attempting to fly a kite in a thunderstorm, copying what they saw on an educational show about Franklin. The joke of the show was that the adults were blaming the evils of TV, not realizing the kids were emulating Franklin.
  • Franklin appears in Fred Saberhagen's "The Frankenstein Papers", and part of the novel is written as letters to Franklin.
  • In The Adventures of Dr. McNinja, McNinja's mentor in medical school was the clone of Franklin. In the story, the clone asks McNinja if he will assist him in a project to grant eternal life.
  • In season 3 of Bewitched, Aunt Clara accidentally brings him forward in time to repair a broken electrical lamp.
  • Franklin has been portrayed in several works of fiction, such as The Fairly Oddparents and Ask a Ninja, as having lightning-and-kite-based superpowers akin to those of Storm from X-Men.
  • M*A*S*H protagonist Hawkeye Pierce is named after Benjamin Franklin. His whole name is Benjamin Franklin Pierce.
  • In Giacomo Puccini's Italian opera of 1904, Madam Butterfly, the archetypical American who betrays Madam Butterfly is Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton, Lieutenant in the United States Navy. The libretto was based on a short story by an American author John Luther Long, whose sister was a missionary in Japan.
  • In the 1993 movie The Sandlot, actor Mike Vitar's character is named Benjamin Franklin Rodriguez.

See also

  • Contributions to liberal theory
  • Liberalism
  • List of places named for Benjamin Franklin
  • Les Neuf Sœurs
  • Social innovation

References

Biographies

Scholarly studies

Primary sources

  • Benjamin Franklin Reader edited by Walter Isaacson (2003)
  • Writings (Library of America edition) (1987), available online at [26]
  • Houston, Alan, ed. Franklin: The Autobiography and other Writings on Politics, Economics, and Virtue. Cambridge U. Press, 2004. 371 pp.
  • Ketcham, Ralph, ed. The Political Thought of Benjamin Franklin. (1965, reprinted 2003). 459 pp.
  • [27] Leonard Labaree, et al., eds., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, 37 vols. to date (1959-2006), definitive edition, through 1783. This massive collection of BF's writings, and letters to him, is available in large academic libraries. It is most useful for detailed research on specific topics. The complete text of all the documents are online and searchable; The Index is also online.
  • "The Way to Wealth." Applewood Books; November 1986. ISBN 0-918222-88-5
  • "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin." Dover Pubns; June 7, 1996. ISBN 0-486-29073-5
  • "Poor Richard's Almanack." Peter Pauper Press; November 1983. ISBN 0-88088-918-7
  • Poor Richard Improved by Benjamin Franklin (1751)
  • "Writings." ISBN 0-940450-29-1
  • "On Marriage."
  • "Satires and Bagatelles."
  • "A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain."
  • "Fart Proudly: Writings of Benjamin Franklin You Never Read in School." Carl Japikse, Ed. Frog Ltd.; Reprint ed. May, 2003. ISBN 1-58394-079-0
  • "Heroes of America Benjamin Franklin"

Other references

  1. ^ "Benjamin Franklin: America's Inventor" article from HistoryNet.com
  2. ^ http://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/articles/fall%202003/Franklin.html
  3. ^ Buchan, Crowded with Genius, p.2
  4. ^ http://www.americanrevolution.org/deckey.html
  5. ^ David T. Morgan, "Benjamin Franklin: Champion of Generic Religion." The Historian. 62#4 2000. pp 722+


This article might use material from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Convert any Books to Kobo

* Notice to all users: You can export our search engine to your blog, website, facebook or my space.

message of the week Message of The Week

Bookyards Facebook, Tumblr, Blog, and Twitter sites are now active. For updates, free ebooks, and for commentary on current news and events on all things books, please go to the following:

Bookyards at Facebook

Bookyards at Twitter

Bookyards at Pinterest

Bookyards at Tumblr

Bookyards blog


message of the daySponsored Links